Saturday, August 31, 2019
Preparation of Earthquakes 1. Building designs & locations a. Fault lines should be shown on maps for people to avoid constructing buildings above active fault lines b. If not, foundation of buildings must be extended to solid material c. High-risk areas should have low-density land use d. Steel structures built to prevent buildings from collapsing when the ground moves i. Taipei 101 has a steel pendulum that would sway & reduce resonance amplification during an earthquake ii. TokyoÃ¢â¬â¢s buildings reinforced to withstand stronger earthquakes e. Shock-absorbing rubber blocks installed in buildings to absorb earthquake energy & oscillations f. Electric supplies installed in buildings in Japan & San Francisco with auto shutoffs to prevent fires g. Fireproof materials used in fittings of buildings to reduce intensity of fires BUT h. Developing countries may not be as well prepared as Developed countries i. Quite costly for the whole nation to have earthquake resistant features j. Less Developed Countries would have less money for such investment k. Over-congested cities would be a death-trap during an earthquake i. Kobe has many areas with flimsy & old structures which collapsed during the Earthquake ii. Many buildings & infrastructures collapsed in Sichuan 2008 due to corruption iii. To save cost & time, materials used to build schools were low quality, resulting in collapse of the buildings iv. Haiti had no reinforced buildings & the govt building collapsed during the earthquake too 2. Drills/ Education a. In Japan, annual drills are conducted to prepare & educate the population b. Warning systems such as SMS were used to warn the Japanese of impending disasters c. Data collected from constant monitoring of areas in the cities helped to save many lives d. Japan invested thousands of dollars in seismographs and data collection systems to monitor the ocean & ground movements BUT e. Some cities/countries do not have such warning & monitoring systems f. There was no warning for the Indonesian quake & tsunami i. Difficult as most people could not afford phones or TVs g. Though given prior warning, there was only 15min to seek shelter when there were no transportation or shelters to go to i. Ã¢Ë ´ Warning had a minimal effect Ã¢â¬â Populations in Developed countries tend to be more prepared as they have greater financial means for drills & use of technology for warnings 3. Prediction a. Many countries have been investing in earthquake prediction i. Studying patterns of previous earthquakes & animal behaviours ii. Useful if accurate prediction of next earthquake can be made b. China has saved many lives through a few successful predictions c. Japan has been researching on animalÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour for earthquake prediction BUT d. However, predictions made may not be accurate e. China managed to predict an earthquake that hit Beijing 9 hours later i. Failed to do so for a similar but stronger earthquake 1 year later f. Their previous prediction saved many lives as evacuation was carried out, with less than 2k deaths g. However, there was no preparation or evacuation process for the later earthquake, resulting in more than 60k deaths IHE Notes: Preparation of Earthquakes Conclusion Ã¢â¬â Developed countries living near earthquake zones would be more prepared than Developing countries Ã¢â¬â Individuals are educated on the appropriate reactions during & after earthquakes Ã¢â¬â Stronger & better buildings are built, minimizing damage dealt & saving lives Ã¢â¬â However, corruption may be rampant and thus require assistance from other countries for recovery Ã¢â¬â Developed countries like Japan did not survive the tsunami either, despite great preparation
Friday, August 30, 2019
The novel was set in California in 1937, on a barley farm. The book is about 2 guys named George and Lennie. They are 2 friends who travels around together going from workplace to work place, earning there keep. To achieve a dream a dream of owning there own piece of land to do whatever they want. There are alot of characters that are lonely in this novel. Candy is one, he is the oldest worker on the farm, and with being a pensioner he is also disabled, but not bye mental, but only has one hand. I think this is why people on the ranch donÃ¢â¬â¢t really want to know him. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s old and one-handed. KrookÃ¢â¬â¢s is another lonely individual on the ranch, heÃ¢â¬â¢s also one of a kind in the book. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s the only black person there. Back then it was extremely common for there to be racism, so the fact that a negro was on the ranch made it incredibly hard for him. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is another example of one of a kind on the ranch, she is the only woman on the ranch. Her husband curly is full of himself, and is always looking for a fight. So in order to speak to CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, is just asking for trouble. This doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help her, because at first people just think sheÃ¢â¬â¢s a slapper whose trying to get the guys at the ranch in trouble. but she really cant help feeling lonely and wanting a conversation with a human being now and then. Feisty Curly is very strict over her and almost has her imprisoned. A way Steinbeck has done this is because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t even know her name. the fact that no one wants to get to know her, or just the fact she is kept away from society we donÃ¢â¬â¢t even know her name. George and Lennie are two guys who are travelling around together, working around wherever they can to earn some money. George is the smaller of the two but the one with the brains. Lennie on the other hand is a big strong lump. The classic type of couple to go travelling around. Lennie isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just all brute force, he is actually very affectionate he likes soft animals that he can pet. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite understand his own power, as you will find out later. George takes care of Lennie through there travels, because Lennie wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t survive by himself. Even though Lennie is a burden on George, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just leave Lennie because he knows that heÃ¢â¬â¢d be nothing without him. Lennie does respect George though like an older brother or parent, he will listen to everything George says and do it. But everyone else he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t give a damn! After a discussion Lennie and George were having about there dream place, George announces to Lennie he knows somewhere like theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve always talked about. Candy over hears as he is still in the room. Now Candy is an old swamper, who spends his time sweeping. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to live the rest of his life like this. He interrupts there conversation, to give George a proposition of helping them out with the land. He offered a huge sum of money towards it. Maybe he was also buying himself into a relationship. He also offers to cook clean and other various chores around the place. After he offers the money they canÃ¢â¬â¢t resist the offer or there dream would stay a dream forever. But I think they knew they could trust Candy as he hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t got anything to live for or in any way betray the two. Crooks is the only nigger in this story. I think Steinbeck gave a sense that even if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t read the description of crooks you would know he was different somehow. He isnÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed to play cards with the other guys in the bunkhouse, heÃ¢â¬â¢s not even aloud in the bunkhouse. He has his own room out in the stables, its kind off like theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve just said, now heÃ¢â¬â¢s out with the other animals. Just because he is a different colour, they just look down on him, like he is an animal. This shows the extent of the racism. But in one way this is the one thing, crook is aloud to have, that is his own personal space. I think the others respect this as they know if they want to come in, then they need his permission first. He is very sour towards white people, as what they have pout him and his family through for generations. So he is very bitter against racists, and white people in general. When Lennie is in the barn, after his pup died, via the over petting from Lennie. CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife enters the scene. They sit and talk, at first Lennie wants to obey GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s orders, but she convinces him to settle down. I think Steinbeck made this scene more than just to put an end to CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. I think its also to bring the two most lonely people on the ranch together. All the men are outside horseshoeing, apart from Lennie. And CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife just expelled from everyone as per usual. So after talking, they seem to have made Ã¢â¬ËfriendsÃ¢â¬â¢. When lennie talks about his love of animals and soft things, she says he can touch her hair, because its soft. But now after Lennie touches her hair it has flipped the story right round to the beginning. Lennie not understanding the delicate female emotions. After stroking her hair for abit, she asks him to stop. But Lennie canÃ¢â¬â¢t resist, and just has to keep stroking her. After this she thinks sheÃ¢â¬â¢s being attacked or assaulted. She gets very panicky, and starts screaming. This gets George very confused and scared. In shock he pleas for her to stop, with his hands around her mouth. This just gets her even more scared and she keeps going. Lennie not knowing what to do, gets angry that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s not listening to him and violently shakes her. Resulting in her breaking her neck. After he realises what heÃ¢â¬â¢s done. He remembers what George told him, and runÃ¢â¬â¢s away to the riverside where he was told to go if he caused trouble. Now after everyone had found out CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife was dead George and curly knew there dream was shattered. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing they could do to save Lennie from a fait ending only with death. Candy seems very thoughtless and selfish, when he asks George Ã¢â¬Å"George can we still do it?Ã¢â¬ But I think hes just trying to keep his dream alive for a little more. He really needed an outlet from the life he is leading at this time. George must have been quite offended, especially how close he was to Lennie. But they both must have been annoyed. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ve both just had there dream shattered in a moment. I think Candy wanted to keep it alive just for a little longer.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Managing a Multigenerational Workforce Monash University Jason Cheah Introduction A multigenerational workforce can present many challenges for organizations of today and are fast becoming a prominent issue for Australian HR managers. An ageing workforce and continual technological innovation are the main reasons attributing to the issues associated with a multigenerational workforce. To remain competitive organizations will need to utilize such a workforce to their advantage and this can be achieved through effective human resource development. The differences between generations are known to occur due to major influences in the environment in which early human socialization occurs (Macky, Gardner & Forsyth, 2008). These influences can impact on a range of factors of an individual including personality, values and beliefs, which will generally remain stable throughout adulthood (Westerman & Yamamura, 2007). The changing nature of the socio-cultural environment will also influence generational differences as individuals of different generations will have been exposed to different events and experiences during their developmental years (Beaver & Hutchings, 2005). A multigenerational workforce is an issue that cannot be ignored and the challenge then for organizations is to be able to manage, develop and maintain an effective multigenerational workforce. HR departments will need to recognize the demographics of their workplace and to implement an organizational culture that values and rewards diversity (Holland & De Cieri, 2006). This article will aim to address the issue of a multigenerational workforce and its impacts on Australian organizations and HRD. Using the case study of Mixed Ages Technology Corporation (MATC), the challenges and issues presented by managing and developing older and younger employees will be discussed. Then a brief summary of the case study will be followed by a discussion of strategies best suited for MATC to improve the morale of multigenerational workforces and HRÃ¢â¬â¢s role in improving efficiency between the Baby Boomers and the Generation Y workforce Issues and Challenges of Baby Boomers The global trend of an ageing workforce and government policy directions towards reversing early retirement trends raises the issue of the costs to employers with an ageing workforce (Brooke, 2003). Recently Australian government policies are being directed towards retaining older workers and reducing costs of pensions, health costs of retirees and superannuation payments; which are estimated to cost the country $46 billion between 2000 and 2031 (Brooke, 2003). This is having a direct impact on Australian organizations as an increase in age of their workforces creates an increase of the human resource costs associated with older workers, consequently making older workers more expensive to employ (Patrickson & Hartmann, 1995). However another worrying factor of a mature age workforce force is that with the impending retirement of the baby boomers; organizations will lose a wealth of experience, knowledge and skills that will be extremely hard to replace (Jorgensen, 2005). Difficulty in replacing such skill and experience can be attributed to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s low fertility rate, and therefore a reduced supply of younger workers joining the workforce and the increasing skill shortages (Anonymous, 2006). This will lead to an increase of competition for talent and Jorgensen (2005) believes that organizations must look at new ways of retaining older workers and to make better use of their skills and experiences. Organizations will have an increased need to retain older workers by creating career paths to help older workers to break out of career plateaus, and to retrain those whose skills have become outdated (Holland & De Cieri, 2006). Organizations that fail to address the ageing workforce issue risk future staff and skill shortages. The key to managing ageing workers is to actively identify strategies to retain, retrain and integrate older workers into their workplace and to capitalize on their skills, knowledge and experiences (Holland & De Cieri, 2006). Managing and Retaining Baby Boomers Organizations need to be wary of losing a wealth of skills and knowledge that older workers possess through poor management (Beaver & Hutchings, 2005). As employees mature they are more likely to experience disengagement with the workplace and career plateauing, which can lead to an increased intention to leave. HR managers will need to work with both the employee and the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals to eliminate these barriers. There are various options available to organizations faced with the problem of retaining older workers. Providing phased retirement plans, moving older workers to part time work and creating more flexible working conditions can save organizations the costs involved with hiring new employees while maintaining older workers technical knowledge. Additionally it is important for organizations to recognize older workers personal commitments and their need for work life balance (Hutchings & Beaver, 2005). Contrary to the view of a career plateau, Armstrong-Stassen (2008) argues that majority of older workers want to continue learning and developing their skills and also desire a job that is challenging and meaningful. There will also be an increased attractiveness for organizations to hire mature age workers, even if it is on a part time basis, as older workers are readily available sources in terms of expertise that can impact the future success of the organization (Miller & Siggins, 2003). In turn HR managers will have a responsibility to have policies in place to encourage lifelong learning and knowledge management. However older workers can be a popular target during downsizing, and many experience hidden and open pressures to retire early. Addressing these issues through frequent training and feedback programs will assist older employees to feel valued by their organization. (Cadrain, 2007) believes that the costs associated with recruiting and training staff pays off over time, as the longer you retain staff the greater the return is on your investment. Therefore it is vital for organizations to retain and retrain not only the older workers but younger workers as well as generation Y workers present a different challenge for HR managers altogether. Issues and Challenges of Generation Y In a tight labour market the need for organizations to effectively manage younger workers, such as generation X and generation Y have become crucial. During the current skills shortage organizations will need to put new strategies in place to support proactive recruitment and HR policies. The high mobility of generation Y can be attributed to technological advances whereupon there is instant connectivity and experience sharing with others, leading to more information and inevitably more choice (Macky, et al. , 2008). Younger workers relish employment opportunities that allow them to learn new things, meet new people, to work in new ways and to take calculated risks (Schulman, 2007). Therefore organizations will need to include values such as flexibility, creativity and personal development when dealing with the management of younger employees. Due to the high mobility of Generation Y, organizations will need to focus on engagement of their younger employees. Younger employees are eager to showcase their talents when joining an organization, as they have not been tainted by bad working habits and are generally excited to take on new and challenging responsibilities (Fallon, 2009). Although this may be seen as a positive, keeping them happy and motivated requires different strategies than those that have been used with the baby boomers. It is widely accepted that younger workers care about much more than money; Holland & De Ceiri (2006) believe that work life balance is critical to Generation Y employees, while Fallon (2009) states that younger employees aim for a holistic fulfillment through work including feeling good about their job and a healthy balance with their social lives. This view is consistent in that younger generations need to have a perception of meaningfulness associated with their role. A lack of engagement from the employer can produce disillusionment, a lack of creativity and a lack of investment (Shulman, 20007). Organizations will therefore need to have HR strategies in place to retain younger employees and to keep them motivated and productive. Managing and Developing Generation Y There are many strategies that organizations can utilize in order to attract, train and retain the best young talent in the market. As generation Y have incredibly high expectations about the work environment, growth opportunities and rate of advancement (Downs, 2009) it is imperative for HR managers to consider the career plans of younger employees. Generation YÃ¢â¬â¢s are entering the workforce in large volumes, and organizations that are unable to harness this growing resource will find themselves at a distinct disadvantage (Anonymous, 2006). Management of younger workers is crucial in times of financial hardship. Contrary to the view of (Miller & Siggins, 2003), who argues that older workers can assist organizations through financial as they are readily available sources, Anonymous (2009) states that organizations need to consider the long term prospects of generation YÃ¢â¬â¢s. In order to keep generation YÃ¢â¬â¢s challenged, HR managers may consider restructuring certain entry level positions so that the duties of the role vary. Additionally HR managers should discuss various career paths with younger employees and the possible steps in reaching such goals (Downs, 2009). Research shows that communication between managers and younger employees is becoming increasingly crucial (Fallon, 2009). As younger employees are used to direct, ongoing feedback in their developmental years they expect the same type of treatment from their managers. Especially as they have not yet experienced a recession, Generation YÃ¢â¬â¢s will need constant feedback to remain motivated and productive. They will feel more valued and loyal to the company if managers are able to show that they care about the growth and progress of the employee. This will in turn have long term benefits and save the organization costs from a reduced turnover (Fallon, 2009). How organizations manage the generation gap is determined by the demographics of the workplace and strategies available to them. This article will now link effective HR strategies to Mixed Ages Technology Corporations organization culture and goals. Feeling Valued by the Organization There are several generational issues that confront MATCÃ¢â¬â¢s newly appointed HR director Tom Fletcher. Employee morale and productivity has dropped due to the rising tension between the baby boomers and the generation Y workers. The baby boomers of the company are unsatisfied with the amount of respect shown to them by the younger workers and are quite resistant to any change in the promotions system, which is based on seniority. On the other hand the generation y workers believe that there is a lack of opportunity for individual growth and oppose the current promotion system; they also believe that the older workers are outdated when it comes to modern technology. To enable both younger and older workers to feel valued by each other and by MATC, the HR team will need to address these two underlying issues. Initially the HR team needs to assess the generation gap by recognizing and openly discussing generational differences with the employees. McGuire, By & Hutchings (2007) believe that effective managers will help employees feel valued by the organization; therefore HR should be proactive in helping managers succeed in this area. As managers nowadays have to deliver in a shorter time frame and with limited resources (Aker, 2009), HR can provide coaching and mentoring programs and develop learning solutions and performance management tools to educate managers on generational differences and the best strategies available to manage a multigenerational workforce. However (Anonymous, 2009) argues that it is up to the employees to adapt to generational differences and that an assessment should be made to identify improvement opportunities within MATCÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational culture. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current culture is one of continuous change and adaptation; hence HR needs to remind employees of this culture while adding a culture of embracing and encouraging workforce diversity (Aker, 2009). A diverse workforce is richer because there are many different perspectives, different learning styles and different attitudes towards work. Through effective human resource development, MATC will have the ability to harness this diversity into an organizational strength and investment for the future. Feedback Programs One of the biggest causes of generational tension is insecurity about jobs (Crumpacker & Crumpacker, 2007). Older workers may be involved in a transactional psychological contract and will therefore be reluctant to share information and resources will the younger employees. Additionally younger employees may worry that older employees will resent their attempts to climb the corporate ladder (Downs, 2009). HR needs to encourage an intergenerational learning environment and an environment of continuous learning and a continuous transfer of knowledge by addressing anxiety and tensions through positive reinforcement. HR also needs to reassure all employees that their contributions are valued and may even consider rewarding behaviours displaying knowledge sharing and acceptance of diversity. These types of career management strategies will help employees to feel greater job security and in turn less threatened by other generations. A commonly used strategy to instill confidence in employees and to make them feel valued is to provide frequent and timely positive feedback and offering public praise from management and peers (Cadrain, 2007). However HR needs to understand that feedback programs need to differ according to generational characteristics. It is not uncommon for HR to bring in change and communication consultants to train managers in areas of communication, feedback and negotiation to help managers understand such differences (Crumpacker & Crumpacker, 2007). As baby boomers are facing a growing pressure from a young demographic of workers, they will need to be reassured about that value they add to the organization. However baby boomers can be overly sensitive to feedback and can usually spot transparent feedback (Cadrain, 2007). In contrast generation Y employees rely of feedback from authority figures to assess whether they are on the right track and consequently they can struggle with the processing of feedback (Fallon, 2009). Therefore it is imperative to reassure younger workers that the feedback is designed to support their career progression, which is a major driving factor for generation YÃ¢â¬â¢s. In the same article (Fallon, 2009) it states that it will be worthwhile for HR managers to organize more frequent gatherings among the staff and to explore programs that encourage greater collaboration. Improving Productivity through Mentoring Programs For a multigenerational workforce to function cohesively, MATC needs to build a culture based on open communication and mutual respect. A popular method for achieving such as goal is to encourage frequent group collaborations and teamwork. (Carnevale, 2005) found that brownbag training sessions, special projects and committee work can assist to reduce friction and in turn build camaraderie among employees. Another effective strategy to lower tensions is to assign the older workers as mentors to younger employees. Despite the stereotype of Generation YÃ¢â¬â¢s to be impatient, Downs (2009) states that they keenly understand the value of experience and that they excel at working in teams. By pairing them with older and more experienced workers, this will assist the older workers to feel valued and respected and in turn facilitate the transfer of knowledge between generations, it will also fulfill younger employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s desires to rocket up the learning curve and improve their chances of promotion. Further to this Caudron (2002) states the importance of dual mentoring relationship. There is a distinct advantage of this method in that two professionals may possess vastly different skill sets, and pairing them will eliminate shortcomings and maximize strengths. However (McGuire, et al. 2007) argues that organizations need to be wary that generational differences in judgments or a destructive tone of relationship such as jealousy or prejudice may have a negative impact on mentoring program and therefore need to link a culture of embracing generational diversity with such HR strategies. This view is supported by Jorgensen (2005) who argues that older employees who are no longer competing for promotion could move into a mentor or coach role to enable effective knowledge transfer to younger employees, while still contributing their skills and experiences directly to specific projects. By engaging all employees, the organization will inevitably improve long term benefits. Engagement of the Workforce Given current economic challenges MATC need to put a premium on fully engaged employees. Promoting employee engagement is one indicator of the effectiveness of HR approaches to talent management, due to the fact that enhancing employee engagement benefits both employees and employers (Downs, 2009). There are a range of benefits resulting from effective engagement including higher productivity, higher job satisfaction, less sick days taken and a longer tenure with the organization. Managing a multigenerational workforce has forced organizations to consider many alternative strategies for engagement. Past research has found varying factors effect the level of engagement; gender, caring responsibilities, physical health, core self evaluation and most importantly, age (Tsai, 2008). MATC needs to identify options for different approaches to enhancing employee engagement. The HR team may want to get suggestions employees about supports that they can rovide for them that would simultaneously support positive work life balance and also enhance engagement. It terms of baby boomers, child care facilities or carers leave may be beneficial. While for generation YÃ¢â¬â¢s past research has shown that work life balance is a priority (Shulman, 2007), therefore an increase in flexible hours may lead to higher levels of engagement. MATC can also put HR strategies in place that directly affect some of the individual characteristics noted above. For example, the offer of wellness initiatives and programs can improve or maintain the health of older workers which can in turn affect their engagement level. While having social gatherings and events may help younger employees have a greater sense of inclusion in the organization. Conversely Gebauer (2006) believes that it is an interaction of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics and experiences at work that affect their level of engagement. The workplace culture regulates an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences at work. Providing employee specific opportunities for training and development, a culture of flexibility, organizational support and perceptions of inclusion and job security are all important in maintaining productive employees. Conclusion Every individual possesses biases that can often prevent them from recognizing the valuable contributions that others can offer; the generational stereotypes that exist in the workplace are usually derived from generational differences in personality and motivational drivers (Brooke, 2003). Tensions arise if these differences are not addressed and can lead to a low morale of the workforce. HR managers need to eliminate generational barriers between older and younger workers and this can be done by imposing an organizational culture that accepts generational differences while promoting the fact that there are consistent drivers across generations (Macky, et al. , 2008). Organizations nowadays can have up to four generations working for them and it is their ability to address generational gaps and manage these differences that is imperative to remaining competitive and having a motivated and productive workforce. As workforce demographics are shifting dramatically, HR managers should aim to provide an effective mix of compensation, benefits, flexible work arrangements and opportunities for growth and development for every individual. Traditional approaches designed to meet the needs of baby boomers are no longer effective and therefore new strategies need to be tailored to a more diverse workforce. Each generation requires a unique set of factors to motivate them at work and human resources plays an important strategic role in enabling diverse talent to thrive (Tsai, 2008). HR strategies should be free of bias from the recruitment, training and development and promotional processes of the organization. Organizations will need to shift away from a mindset that tolerates diversity to one where diversity is valued, harnessed and leveraged to achieve greater business success. This will have implications for organizations to have effective strategies in place to manage and support diversity which are aligned to organizational goals. After all it is a diverse workforce that creates balance and a successful and productive workforce. References Aker, J, M. (2009). Managing a multigenerational workforce. Buildings. 103(1), 46-48. Anonymous. (2006). Beyond age discrimination to leveraging human capital. Human Resource Management International Digest. 14(3). 6-8. Anonymous. (2009). Make plans for Gen Y workers. CU360 Newsletter. 35(7), 2-3. Armstrong-Stassen, M. (2008). Factors associated with job content plateauing among older workers. Career Development International. 13(7), 594-613. Beaver, G. , & Hutchings, K. (2005). Training and developing an age diverse workforce in SMEs. Education & Training. 47(8), 592-604. Brooke, L. (2003). Human resource costs and benefits of maintaining a mature-age workforce. International Journal of Manpower. 24(3), 260-283. Cadrain, D. (2007). Employers prepare to keep, not lose, baby boomers. HRMagazine. 52, 23-24. Carnevale, T. (2005). The coming labor and skills shortage. T&D. 59(1), 37-41. Caudron, S. (2002). Rebuilding trust through communication. Workforce. 81(10), 33-33. Crumpacker, M. , & Crumpacker, J. M. (2007). Succession planning and generational stereotypes: should HR consider age-based values and attitudes a relevant factor or a passing fad? Public Personnel Management. 36(4). 349-369. Downs, K. (2009). Managing Gen Y in recessionary times. Business Credit. 111(4), 28-29. Fallon, T. (2009). Retain and motivate the next generation: 7 ways to get the most out of you millennial workers. Supervision. 70(5), 5-7. Gebauer, J. (2006). Workforce engagement. T&D. 61(2), 28-30. Holland, P. , & De Cieri, H. (2006). Contemporary issues in human resource development: an Australian perspective. NSW, Australia: Pearson Education Australia. Jorgensen, B. (2005). The ageing population and knowledge work: a context for action. Foresight. 7(1), 61-76. Macky, K. , Gardner, D. , & Forsyth, S. (2008). Generational differences at work: introduction and overview. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 23(8), 857-861. McGuire, D. , By, R. T. , & Hutchings, K. (2007). Towards a model of human resource solutions for achieving intergenerational interaction in organizations. Journal of European Industrial Training. 31(8), 592-608. Miller, M. & Siggins, I. (2003). A framework for intergenerational planning. Foresight. 5(6), 18-25. Patrickson, M. , & Hartmann, L. (1995). AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s ageing population: implications for human resource management. International Journal of Manpower. 16(5), 34-46. Schulman, S. (2007). Crossing the generational divide: engaging Ã¢â¬Å"youngÃ¢â¬ employees in your organization. Development and Learning in Organizations. 21(2), 7-9. Tsai, J. (2008). Working with the years. CRM Magazine. 12(11), 15-16. Westerman, J. W. , & Yamamura, J. H. (2007). Generational preferences for work environment fit: effects on employee outcomes. Career Development International. 12(2), 150-161.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
1. What Role Should the European Central Bank Play in the Current European Financial or Public Debt Crisis - Essay Example 3 The present European economic crisis has built up as a result of the countries within the continent struggling to pay up the debts they have been building up in the past few decades. Several countries within the union have failed to record an economic growth in turn failing to pay the bondholders their required guarantees. These countries include Spain, Italy, Portugal, Greece and Ireland. 4The crisis was exposed by the American recession of the year 2007-2008 that made many countries in Europe experience slow financial growths due to the unsustainable fiscal policies that most European countries were utilizing.5 The countries that had not made financial reforms such as Greece were the first to feel the pain of the crisis when they experienced very high deficits in their budgets which were also unsustainable. 6 Investors who had interests within the countries that were experiencing financial difficulties in turn demanded superior yields on their bonds raising the costs of these coun tries debts.7 The unionÃ¢â¬â¢s central bank should resist the idea of printing more money so that they can buy out the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s distressed debts.8 In the month of December 2011, the central bank availed credit facilities to the troubled financial institutions that were within the region. This move that the central bank has been putting much effort in has not helped in solving the continents problems, however, it helped in boosting the confidence of potential investors who now perceive the economies that were largely in debt as experiencing slow growths in their activities. This move has additionally helped in preventing the collapse of the economies of some member countries along with keeping the European currency stable in the global monetary markets.9 The unionÃ¢â¬â¢s central bank should establish legal instruments such as the European monetary stability facility with the cooperation of the
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Management & Organisational Behaviour - The Change is Coming - Essay Example In case of Tracey Foods Production, employee motivation is likely to go down because of the expected changes in the organizational systems. In this case, it is the responsibility of the managers to take effective steps to build the level of employee motivation to make them put their efforts in increasing the productivity of the company. Communication with employees and other staff members is also necessary in order to make organizational changes effective and result-oriented. Moreover, the top management of the company also needs to take effective steps to restructure the culture and work approach in order to make the company accomplish its goals effectively and efficiently. Answer 1: 1. Need for Increasing Motivation Motivation is the key to increased employee productivity. It is imperative for the management of a company to take effective steps to build employee motivation. Williams (2010, p. 1) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Motivating people to do their best work, consistently, has been an endur ing challenge for executives and managersÃ¢â¬ . However, employee and management motivation could be affected due to the changes that are brought within an organization due to the variability in internal and external environment. ... Those human needs include need for power, need for affiliation, and need for achievement. The top management of Tracey Food Production can use this theory to make employees aware of their needs of power and achievement which can ultimately be used for increasing the motivation level of employees in spite of of the all anticipated changes. 2.1 Need for Power One of the needs of employees is power. Employees want to be included in decision-making matters, as well as in other managerial affairs to some extent. To build employee motivation companies can share some management power with the key employees. They can also involve the employees in decision-making matters to make them feel valued. Moreover, consulting employees in making different business strategies, as well as in setting employee benefit strategies can also prove effective for a company. It is a fact that every employee wants to be taken into consideration during the phase of decision-making or strategy development. Therefor e, if Tracey Food considers these needs of employees while developing or implementing strategies, the results would definitely be good for the company. for example, if the management invites employees to give their suggestions in business planning, they will feel valued and the level of their motivation increase will increase as well. 2.2 Need for Achievement The need for achievement is the need of an individual to accomplish his/her personal and professional goals. Tracey Food Production can make employees aware of the importance of achieving companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals in a timely manner. The top management of the company can motivate the employees to work hard to get better job positions which can play a significant role in the accomplishment of their personal goals. Moreover,
Behavioural Finance - Essay Example It is very clear that some of the participants in the market do not make rational decisions which translate to mistakes. However, astute market players get the chance to capitalize on such mistakes. For instance, a rational investor can take the decision to buy when there is market crash resulting from speculative behavior (Mussweiller & Schneller, 2003, p. 124). Given a risk-adjusted basis, rational investors can beat market performance in a consistent manner. According to the perfect market hypothesis, prices reflect the full information about the market. This has the implication that an investor cannot beat the market unless he or she has inside information. A number of indices have been created with the aim of mimicking market performance. Research studies indicate that index funds account for almost 10 percent of the U.S. stock market capitalization and 60 percent of the money flowing into mutual funds. Despite the increasing euphoria towards passive management, there is active management which has enabled investors beat market bearing returns. Behavioral finance insists that investors are irrational in their decisions and that it is easy to partly predict future performance of stocks using their past performance. Careful analysis of the past trends of the tocks has the advantage of making it possible to outperform the market (Mulino, Scheelings, Brooks & Faff, 2009, p. 50). Rational investors can outperform because there exists inefficiencies in the capital market which create investment opportunities. Rational investors outperform the market because irrational investors often find themselves in the bottom part of the distribution pattern. There is some level of disconnection between stock performance and stock market valuation. The existence of irrational investors has resulted in the markets being driven by emotions rather than logic (Dreman, Johnson, MacGregor & Slovic, 2001, p. 127). However, research studies indicate that logic often triumphs over em otions. Irrational investors tend to lose while logic investors record gains. Most of the investors in the market do not bother to look at the fine details of their investment portfolios. Instead they look for information such as who are investing in the same portfolio and this has the negative effect of encouraging wrong decisions. There are a number of situations that a rational investor can exploit and record superior performance that the market. Theoretically, this is possible even though no investor has ever recorded consistent returns above market expectations (Statman, Fisher & Anginer, 2008). First, a rational investor can do a comprehensive homework and identify small cap stocks that in most cases are not well followed. Such stocks are often ignored by equity funds because of the fear of high risks associated with small companies. Furthermore, such companies are not well known in Wall Street and this makes it possible for most of the investors to ignore them (Caginalp, 2002 , p. 73). A rational investor can identify such companies and analyze their prospects for superior returns. The small cap firms have a potential of recording higher returns than the market because their true value has not been influenced by speculations. Second, the market sometimes overdoes its pessimism for a number of individual companies as well as certain sectors (Bruce, 2003, p. 125). The situation
Monday, August 26, 2019
Chapter 3 Synthesis - Essay Example the classroom environment and provide positive behavioral example (behaviorism) as well as mind the differences in culture, educational background, learning styles, and family life of the students (cognitivism). Constructivism emphasizes practical aspects of learning, asserting that all the participants of the lesson construct knowledge collectively, sometimes with considerable changes in the process, which requires from teachers flexibility and creativity. In reality, teachers should invest a lot of time in preparation for lessons: explaining the importance of activities, selecting activities, their sequence, playback strategies, and rehearsing. This will allow paying more attention to immediate reactions of the students: the chapter suggests assessing the progress of students and the atmosphere in classroom with maximal frequency. An ideal classroom works for itself in the sense that students work as much if not more than teacher and that they are so engaged in learning as to teach each other. In such collaborative environment, a teacher shares with students his/her expectations and his/her impressions from the process of teaching while remaining opened to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The Strategic Management of Economy Hotel in China - Essay Example Presentation and analysis of research methods 45 3.2.1 Research Strategy 45 3.2.2 Research Philosophy 46 3.2.3 Data collection 47 3.2.4 Research Sampling 50 3.2.5 Data analysis 51 3.2.6 Ethical considerations 53 3.2.7 Limitations of Research 54 Chapter 4: Findings and Discussion 55 4.1 Introduction 55 4.2 Demographic Findings: Home Inns 55 4.3 Survey Questionnaire Findings: Homes Inn 58 4.3.1 Role of External Factors 58 4.3.2 Role of Internal Factors 59 4.3.3.Ability to Cater Organizational Mission 59 4.3.4 Achieving Objectives 59 4.3.5 Strategy Consultation 59 4.3.6 Compliance 60 4.3.7 Feedback 60 4.3.8 Training and Development 61 4.3.9 Daily Briefings 61 4.3.10 Project Reports 61 4.4 Descriptive Statistics: Homes Inn 62 4.5 Interview Analysis: Homes Inn 64 4.5.1 Influence of External Factors on Strategic Management 64 4.5.2 Influence of Internal Factors on Strategic Management 64 4.5.3 Homes InnÃ¢â¬â¢s Mission 65 4.5.4 Homes InnÃ¢â¬â¢s Objectives 65 4.5.5 Strategy Development P rocess 66 4.5.6 Policy Structure and its Stakeholders 66 4.5.7 Training and Development Programs Offered to the Employees 67 4.5.8 Homes InnÃ¢â¬â¢s Organizational Structure 67 4.5.9 Budgeting and Costing of Strategy Development and Implication 68 4.5.10 Implementation of Strategic Plan 68 4.5.11 Performance Evaluation Systems 68 4.5.12 Issue Identification Mechanism 69 4.5.13 Feedback Mechanism 69 4.6 Demographic Finding: China Lodging Group 69 4.7 Survey Questionnaire Findings: China Lodging Group 72 4.7.1 Role of External Factors 72 4.7.2 Role of External Factors 73 4.7.3 Ability to Cater Organizational Mission 73 4.7.4 Achieving Objectives 73 4.7.5 Strategy Consultation 74 4.7.6 Compliance 74 4.7.7 Feedback 74 4.7.8 Training and Development 75 4.7.9 Daily Briefings 75 4.7.10 Project Reports 75 4.8... This research will begin with the statement that it is the beauty of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s development and growth, that it provides enormous opportunities to the businesses within national borders to expand the size of their business. In addition, new businesses also come into existence which speeds up the process of developmental efforts. At one hand, manufacturing industry experiences the best time in its business life cycle, on the other hand, provides the services sector to put efforts on research and development. By doing this, service sector ensures that it delivers state of the art services which cannot be matched by the competitors. For this purpose, strategic management and its utilization for developing unique and value adding service structures become important. When a country is in growing stage, the most beneficial and profitable sector is considered to be the hospitality and food industry. This is because, with growth and development, a country receives a large number of f oreign tourists and delegates, who are visiting the country for business or pleasure. In addition, tourists and business travelers also travel from one city to another, which increases the requirement for accommodation and food facilities. China is considered as one of the biggest country of the world, population wise, and is the most speedily developing country of the world. China provides enormous opportunities to investors for making beneficial investments in the businesses. On the other hand, China has natural sights that attract millions of tourists each year.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Consultation topic paper - Essay Example s a phenomenon in which one or more industrial/managerial experts give their valuable and well thought opinion/advice to a client who seeks to improve performance or expand operations. Per se, a company that has recently incurred a big loss in business may turn toward some consultancy firm for getting some advice on maximizing profits or fill up the loopholes. However, different types of consultancy services are needed for the different types of organizations, individuals, and industries because everyone has a unique need. Yet, experts have managed to analyze the process of consultation in a generalized way. Roughly, consultation process is divided into six phases. These are: pre-entry (preliminary formalities and introduction); entry (exploring the problem, contracting, etc.); information gathering (data collection, problem confirmation, etc.); implementation (intervention selection, planning, etc.); evaluation and termination (Kurpius et al 1993; International Labour Organization 2 002; Ray 2011). The proposed draft addresses human resource or HR related issues, where training and interaction are the main foci. Scope of consultation in this context is around the nature and extent of the proposed training program. A necessity of consultation is likely to arise for the following reasons: Another requirement is to expand the target population of the team building program. Focusing just on the staffs of the specified non-profit organization may not be enough. Inducting corporate level managers and peers may help in fostering more professional attitude. Potential problems associated with each phase of consultation may affect the proposed team building program adversely. Selecting the right consultancy group or company is the most difficult task. Clash of opinions and collision of personalities may hamper both the consultation process and training program. Entry phase: The most crucial part of this phase is contracting. While contracting, the managers must be aware
Friday, August 23, 2019
Global Branding In The 21st Century - Essay Example Global branding managers increasingly need to find ways to speak to customers individually, or in smaller groups. Global brand managers are able to communicate with their customers in ways never before possible. The opportunities of interfacing with individuals and smaller, carefully targeted interest groups, and the ability to reach them whenever and wherever they may be at any given moment, are unlimited. Global branding managers are exploring all this with a variety of approaches, making the Internet a flexible and ever-changing medium. Even branding managers, whose products cannot be obtained directly via the Internet, such as fast-food restaurants, use the Internet to communicate a favourable personality and the value of their services to create goodwill among their customers. In the midst of all this, brand presence emerges as an important means of continuity and interfacing with other communication media. If not, new brands and brand marks, that surface almost daily on the Internet, can become extinct even before being recognized and accepted by the customer. The time span for creating new brands and brand marks has been shortened substantially through the availability of computers and a wide variety of computer software.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Rene Ryman Essay Week 1 Case Study Professor Rene Ryman Case Problems Ã¢â¬â Chapter 1 Ã¢â¬â Question 1, parts a through d 1. A. How did Pine Valley Furniture go about developing its information systems? Why do you think the company chose this option? What other options were available? Pine Valley started small with the owner Alex Schuster just taking orders from customers for his custom furniture. Eventually each department had its own system, but they were still separate databases. The system has evolved into an automated system supported by in-house information system staff. I feel the company chose this option because they wanted to have their own in-house IS staff to maintain their own system. They could have outsourced the creation and support of their current system but they see the value in being self sufficient. B. One option available to Pine Valley Furniture was an enterprise-wide system. What features does an enterprise-wide system, such as SAP, provide? What is the primary advantage of an enterprise-wide system? An enterprise-wide system provides a single database as a repository for companies to centralize the management and availability of company data. The primary advantage of the enterprise-wide system is that it can be maintained at one location and supported from that location. The data is consistent and it costs less to support. C. Pine Valley Furniture will be hiring two systems analysts next month. Your task is to develop a job advertisement for these positions. Locate several Web sites and/or newspapers that have job advertisements for systems analysts. What skills are required? Required skills for Systems Analysts: Must be able to make program modifications Must be able to consolidate multiple databases into one Must be able to train support staff on new system Stay abreast of compliance rules and regulations D. What types of information systems are currently utilized at Pine Valley Furniture? Provide an example of each. Two primary information systems used at Pine Valley Furniture are for accounting and financial. As an example of each there would be a system for paying suppliers and contractors to run the furniture business. For all bills paid out of the general operating account a system needs to be in place to keep track of invoices, purchase orders and printing checks. Likewise a system is used to maintain payroll data. To pay the employees a system is needed to maintain hourly data and salary data. Along with whatever benefits are offered to employees. This system would keep all of the records, process the payroll and print payroll checks.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
New Communication Structure Essay Communication is important in every aspect of our lives. This is also true for the communication used in our professional lives. When at work we Ã¢â¬Å"depend on cooperation with others to accomplish our goals, and communication is the critical human process we use to promote such cooperation.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; sec. 1.1) Understanding communication is the best way to make sure it is being used effectively correctly. When communication is effective then organizational components will run smoother and efficiently. Smoother and effective communication means that an organization has a greater chance of following its mission and achieving its goals. Successful communication can be as important to organizational productivity as any other component used. There are five concepts that are important for successful communication within an organizational setting and this proposal will discuss their necessity in an organization. Culture is something that needs to be recognized and aware of when we are communicating with everyone. It is also important in organizational communication. Organizational culture includes the norms and attitudes of the organization. To support clear and effective communication in an organization the employees must be pay close attention the organizational culture. The process of socialization will also help an employee to adapt to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. The process of socialization is where, Ã¢â¬Å"established members of cultural groups educate others and enforce adherence to established cultural rules or norms for appropriate behavior.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; pg. 17) In understanding the norms in an organization communication will be smoother because there will be less chance for misunderstandings. An example of organizational culture would be the style of dress in the office. If an organization is one where the employees dress in suits and formal business wear then an employee who came to work in shorts and a t-shirt would affectÃ the culture in a negative way. Those communicating with those employees could become uncomforta ble, or distracted. This may result in avoiding communication with this employee and over all communication will breakdown. Avoidance of communication with only one employee is enough to cause a gap in efficiency. The book Ã¢â¬Å"Communications in OrganizationsÃ¢â¬ explains, Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic organizational communicators initiate and develop strong, effective, and satisfying relationships with others to promote cooperation and coordination in organizational life.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; pg. 15) Understanding the organizational culture also builds trust and respect among employees which in turn brings higher production. Paying attention to organizational culture helps to build the relational communication to support effective communication. Part of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is the forms of communication used. Informal and formal communications are two types of communication that play an important role in an organization. The difference in both forms of communication can be explained as Ã¢â¬Å"Formal patterns of organizational communication follow the power hierarchy within organizations, whereas informal patterns of communication do not necessarily follow along power hierarchy linesÃ¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; sec. 1.5) Formal communication is used to address important job related material. Paying close attention when receiving or using formal communication will stop an employee from making a mistake and will also give them the information to be successful. However, when filtering through formal communications such as emails it is important to avoid information overload. Information overload takes place when, Ã¢â¬Å"so many different messages are impinging on a person that the person has difficulty making sense of all the information available.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; pg. 174) Scanning email for the most important and relative messages is a skill that is necessary but recognizing formal emails for their importance will ensure that the information involved will be received. In understanding the nuances of informal communication an employee can avoid getting themselves in trouble by offending a supervisor or missing important information. In regards to organizational communication conflict resolution can be the difference in success or failure when working with others to meet company goals. Conflict is inevitable, and happens when people communicate. It can come from assumptions, miscommunications, or one way communication. The good news is conflict can be turned into a positive thing. A quote inÃ the book, says An Introduction to Leadership, that, Ã¢â¬Å"The most important single ingredient in the formula of success is knowing how to get along with people.Ã¢â¬ (Weis, 2011, pg 2) Working through conflicts can build better communication skills, as well as trust and understanding. In using conflict resolution steps new and better ideas can be generated for the organizations. A gentleman named Mr. Tim Scudder wrote a book in which he describes five steps to conflict resolution. An interview he gave he made the point that in conflict Ã¢â¬Å"both parties want the same thing.Ã¢â¬ (Scudder, 2011) He also stressed the importance of anticipating conflict. By anticipating conflict an employee will take time to think, and in thinking they will realize that the person they may have a conflict with wants the same thing. This puts the employee in a positive frame of mind and helps to come to a reasonable solution for both involved. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"How to Deal with Annoying Co-WorkersÃ¢â¬ gives a suggestion to help in dealing with co-workers. It suggests that, Ã¢â¬Å"With most types of annoying co-workers, the solution is simply to be straightforward and assertive.Ã¢â¬ (Green, 2011) Working through a conflict helps co-workers to come to a better understanding of each other. When people understand and respect each other communication is smoother and more effective. Once again, smoother and effective communication benefits the organization. Formal communication, informal communication, and conflict resolution involve two parties. Each of these communications involves a time where another party receives information. In face to face communication active listening is a technique that will ensure that messages are received correctly and will allow the listener to formulate the best response. Active Listening is not only an important part of conflict resolution but communication as a whole. Active listening means, Ã¢â¬Å"being fully engaged in paying attention to your relational partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s communication with you. It is not just hearing skills. It involves paying close attention to your partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s verbal and nonverbal behaviors.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; sec. 4.3) In other words, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a way of showing respect for those you are communicating with. It sounds as simple as just listening but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not that simple. It takes a conscious effort to begin with before it becomes habit. If you are fully engaged in what your partner is communicating then you will get all of the information being sent. It may also evoke the norm of reciprocity which will have your partner giving youÃ their full attention. The norm of reciprocity is, Ã¢â¬Å"the urge to act in-kind that often encourages these relational partners to provide you with information and treat you similarly to the way you treat them.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; pg. 15) The importance to an organization of its members practicing active listening is participants receive all the information that is coming to them. This means that they have all they would need to know to complete their jobs successfully and meet organizational goals. Organizations have both formal and informal leaders. Formal leaders typically are Ã¢â¬Ëassigned their positions of authority within the organizational hierarchy and hold titles such as president, vice president, division leader, and manager.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; pg. 19) Informal leaders are little harder to define by position or tile but Ã¢â¬Å"emerge with organizational life based on credibility (usually a combination of charisma, dynamism, expertise, and trustworthiness), ability to accomplish complex tasks, and access to relevant information.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; pg. 19) Even if you are not a formal leader you can still have influence over others as an informal leader. Informal leaders are not defined by title but by quality of character. Understanding leadership strategies and what being a leader entails helps to motivate workers to meet organizational goals. It is important for organizational leaders be able to communicate in different ways for different situations. There are several different leadership strategies that can be employed for different situations. To understand leadership strategies itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to think about how leaders may see those under them. Douglas McGregor used X and Y models of leadership to explain the relationship between leaders and followers. Theory X makes the assumption about workers they do not like work and will do anything to avoid it. This model will make leaders be more directed because they think that is what workers prefer and need. McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory Y assumes that workers do not dislike work and will work hard if they feel the value of their effort. The Theory Y suggests that if workers are given a degree of autonomy and a chance to use their imaginations they will strive to be successful in their tasks. Depending on how leaders see workers can dictate their leadership strategies. One of three helpful leadership styles is the autocratic leadership style. This is a leadership style that would come from a leader who is a believer in Theory X. An autocratic leader Ã¢â¬Å"makes mostÃ organizational decisions without consulting with others. The leader calls all the shots, tells workers what to do and how to do it.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; sec 7.6) This type of leadership style would have little use for upward communication from those who follow. Upward communication is, Ã¢â¬Å"communication that travels up the power hierarchy.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; pg. 10) This would be difficult for a leader who believes in Theory X because, Ã¢â¬Å"upward communication enables workers to express their concerns and ideas, to provide and ask for feedback, and seek clarification from managers.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; pg. 10) The autocratic leadership style is best suited not for driving workers but in emergency situation where there is little time for collaboration. Organizational participants would appreciate a direct approach in times of pressure. On the opposing side of autocratic leadership is democratic leadership style. When using the democratic leadership style you, Ã¢â¬Å"share responsibility and involve other organizational participants in decision making, although the process for the final decision may vary from the leader having the final say to them facilitating consensus in the group.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; sec. 7.6) This type of leadership style is something that followers respond positively to. It also bolsters the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s position because the workers feel a Ã¢â¬Å"buy inÃ¢â¬ to the process. This is something that Theory Y talks about. The ability of helping the workers feel that their efforts and work are valued, and helping them to see the value. The drawback to this type of style is that it is time consuming, and can lead to conflict if not used correctly and in the right situation. Lastly, there is the laissez-faire leadership style. The laissez-faire leadership style would have the leader, Ã¢â¬Å"share power with workers and delegate decision-making authority to those individuals who are directly involved in the decision-making situations.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; sec. 7.6) This leadership style could be considered an extension of the democratic leadership style. In using this style it is important for a leader to know the capabilities of those under them. The employees under this leader must be experienced and skilled in the tasks that they are being given a degree of control over. This type of leadership style will help a leader delegate those things they have little time for. Delegation is an important skill. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"A Tool Kit for the Real WorldÃ¢â¬ it says that, Ã¢â¬Å"Business people donÃ¢â¬â¢t get accolades for being smart, but for being effective. That is measured inÃ things like increased sales, increased earnings and an increased number of licensing agreements. Not, alas, by the fruition of one employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s great idea.Ã¢â¬ (Motluk, 2011) However, this should not be used as a way of having others do their work for them. This would be damaging to the leader and certainly the organization in that it can bring a degree of disorganization that would be extremely difficult to correct. The leadership strategies above are mentioned because they show the need for a leader to be able to decipher the right strategy for the right situation. Each has one distinctive way to deal with leading and each has its drawbacks when used outside of its best application. Therefore the situational model of leadership may be the best strategy when it comes to leadership. The situational model of leadership is, Ã¢â¬Å"based on the assumption that there is no right way of leading. Rather, the best leaders adapt to the unique situational constraints to exhibit the appropriate leadership style for the situation.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; sec. 7.6) A leader must be able to analyze situations, those involved, the choices, and the preferred outcome. If itÃ¢â¬â¢s an emergency and little time involved then use the autocratic leadership style. When time is available to employ upward communication, and bolster workers self esteem and organizational value a leader should employ democratic leadership style. If a leader is feeling overwhelmed or they are feeling pulled in too many directions, perhaps a laissez-faire leadership style might help to delegate tasks to that can handle them. Understanding leadership strategies helps to use communications with workers that will work best in certain situations. The most important thing about communication in the work place is awareness. As the book Ã¢â¬Å"Communications in OrganizationsÃ¢â¬ points out, Ã¢â¬Å"Organizations and the way they communicate play critical roles in our lives.Ã¢â¬ (Kreps, 2011; pg. 25) The key to effective communication is awareness. All of the five concepts of organizational communication mentioned above have some type of awareness piece built in. Communication is smoothest when those communicating are aware of those they are communicating with, their culture, and their style of communication. Thinking before speaking, anticipating change and conflict, and knowing what actions to take will help a leader communicate effectively with workers. After presenting the five concepts for successful communication within an organizational setting above it is clear to see their necessity forÃ successful communication. References Kreps, G. (2011). Communications in Organizations. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Green, A. (2011, January 6). How to Deal With Annoying Co-Workers. Retrieved from http://money.usnews.com/money/blogs/outside-voices-careers/2011/06/06/how-to-deal-with-annoying-co-workers Motluk, A.(2011) A Tool Kit for the Real World. Retrieved from http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn19969-a-tool-kit-for-the-real-world.html?full=true (2011). Tim Scudder Interview. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P_E7YVkjJQ0 Weiss, J. (2011). An Introduction to Leadership. San Diego, Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Danone Company Analysis Group Danone or Danone is the French company which has the head quarter and stock exchange at Paris. Danone group produces variety of product in many business segmentations; fresh dairy product, water, baby food, medical nutrition and beverage. The group primarily operated in European country; UK, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, through it has operation in Asia, US, Mexico, Argentina, Russia, Brazil, Poland and other parts of the world. In this analysis, we are focusing on Danones bottled water division only in order to make it more specific and easy to use the secondary data. Our group also considers both UK market and Global market according to secondary data provided. Danones group is the second leading producer of packaged water in the world based on volume. The group is also second leading producer of packaged water in Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin-America. (Data monitor, 2009). Their water division market packaged under Volvic, Badoit, Aqua, Naya, LanjarÃ ³n, Font Vella, Bonafont (Brazil), Villa del Sur, Villa Vicencio. The group is focusing on natural mineral and spring water based business. There are two big brands from this group are operating in UK bottle water market; Evian and Volvic. On the figure two below has shown the Danones group key date from 1958 to 1997. Figure2: Danones group Key dates (company history, funding universe) Financial performance analyzing is equipment that the company has to be done every year in order to measure the company performance and company growth so, before we looking through each topic in market driven marketing, we have to consider and analyze their financial performance. Then, we will know that Danone is loss or gain the profit (Growth, stable or loss). Danone group using many strategies in order to make the company growth; growth strategy; joint venture, acquisitions by vertical integration, corporate governance etc. which will describe in detail later on. By looking at figure3, we can conclude that from year 2005 to 2006, revenues of Danone group on bottled water division is decreasing. Then, increasing two years from 2006 to 2008 and decreasing again between 2008 and 2009 (a little). We cannot totally conclude that this company has bad operation by considering only revenue so; we have to calculate percentage growth, financial ratio; profit margin, Debt-asset ratio, Return on assets, Average revenue per employee, average profit per employee and also consider the market share of Danone group in the industry in order to summarize the financial performance of the company. Now, lets calculate the percentage of growth rate by using equation below; By using this equation, we can calculate revenue growth, asset growth, liability growth as shown on the table2 by the next page. Then we calculate the profit margin by using equation below; Debt-asset ratio, return on assets, revenue per employee and profit per employee can be also calculated by using equation below; All result of calculation have displayed on table 2 below; There are many financial ratios in the business that the company has to calculate and consider but in this report, we have limited information therefore we calculate only important or key ratio in order to analyze the basic company performance. Now, lets consider each element on the table2; According to the profit margin equation, we can see that the pattern of profit and profit margin are showing into the same direction (Profit margin profit) that decrease trifling during 2005 to 2006 and exploding at year 2007 and decreasing down to the previous level at 2008 to 2009. We can notice the irregular pattern at year 2007 which may come from some unusual situation in the company. It may come from the policy of the company to lay out some employees or many employees may leave or retire in this year because we can notice from table1, number of employee in 2007 is decreasing down abundantly therefore the company will have less expense and high profit. Another possible reason is in 2007, Danone group joint venture with Dutch Mill group (Datamonitor, 2007) which they can expand their product to Thailand. Danone group also joint venture with others company around the world in this year but they expanded in others market division; milk, yogurt or daily products which we do not con sider in this report. We will discuss more detail on joint venture later on How brand growth? If we are considering only on profit margin element, we can conclude that Danone group operating their company very well because their profit margin shown all positive number. On the figure5 above has represented three graphs of growth; revenue growth, asset growth and liabilities growth. Revenue growth pattern is decreasing from 2005 to 2006 and keep increasing during 2006 to 2008. Then, decreasing again by the last period 2008 to 2009 which means the company had using good marketing strategies on the bottled water division; sale promotion, innovation of product, packaging, cutting price etc. therefore, the company can be able to generate more revenue during 2006 to 2008. However, if we look back to the profit (Net income) graph on figure4, during 2007 to 2008, the company lost the profit. Next, asset growth and liabilities growth pattern are nearly the same as shown on the figure 5 except last period (2008-2009) that asset is increasing but the liabilities is decreasing which looks take the benefit to the company; gain more asset with less liabilities. By this figure, we can notice that on the year 2007, revenue growth and asset growth is a lot increasin g same as profit margin pattern. Now, we may summarize that during 2007, Danone group acquires and joint venture with others company on the bottled water division which make the company have to use more money in order to invest more then, the liabilities is increasing. The company also had more profit and asset. We will not focusing on total liabilities and total asset much on this figure because we already discussed on their growth by the previous figure but, we plot these two elements because they are related to the debt and asset ratio in order to make more easy to understand this ratio. Recall back to the debt-asset ratio equation on the third page, we can see that debt-asset ratio is going to the same direction as liabilities (debt-asset ratio liabilities or debt). This ratio tells us about how the company manages their debt compare with the company asset. By looking through the pattern at the figure6 above, we can see that debt-asset ratio is decreasing during 2005-2006 then, increasing by two year and decreasing again during 2008 to 2009. We can conclude that Danone group can operate their debt and asset better during the last period (less liability, more assets). This figure doesnt tell us much about the company performance. It shows the average revenue and profit per employee which have the same pattern as profit and revenue and we can see that which less number of employees, the profit per employees is increasing. (2007) Now, the last and important ratio, the return on assets (ROA) percentage shows how profitable a companys assets are in generating revenue. Actually, Return on assets is an indicator of how profitable a company is before leverage, and is compared with companies in the same industry but there are a lot of Danone competitor which we will discuss later therefore with ROA of Danone group only, we can conclude that at 2007, Danone group has the highest ROA which mean good because it means the company can use their asset in order to generate high level of profit. (Well operation) Market share of Danone group bottled water division Market share is one of the most important elements that we have to consider in order to analyze the company performance. The figure9 below will show the market share of bottled water market in United Kingdom. By this pie chart, we can conclude that Group Danone is the leading player in the United Kingdom bottled water market, generating a 30.8% share of the markets volume. By the next page, we will see another set of data with show the company shares of bottled water by off-trade value 2006-2010. From this table, we also can see the same result as the previous source of data; Group Danone is the leading player in the United Kingdom bottled water market. As I have mentioned above Danone group owned a big two brand in the UK market; Evian and Volvic. We will discuss more detail about these two brands when we focus about brand equity, Duplication of purchase, Double Jeopardy etc. At that topic, we will show the share of each brand in the market. In this topic, we also notice the main competitors of Danone group; Tesco, Highland Spring, Nestle. How the company growth? Danone group use the many business strategies in order to move forward the company as I had mentioned some of them by the previous topic; acquisition, joint venture, finance agreement (vertical integration) which provide a lot of advantages to the company. Before we go through the company detail, lets we explain briefly about vertical integration to make more understand why this company can be growth by using this strategy. The degree to which a form owns its upstream supplier and its downstream buyer is referred as vertical integration. Because it can have a significant impact on a business units position in its industry with respect to cost, differentiation, and other strategic issues, the vertical scope of the firm is an important consideration on corporate strategy (Quick MBA, 2010) The expansion of activities downstream is referred as forward integration, and expansion upstream is referred as backward integration. There are some advantages of using vertical integration which mentioned by Quick MBA; reduce transportation cost id common worship results in closer geographic proximity, improve supply chain coordination, provide more opportunities by means of increased control over inputs, capture upstream or downstream profit margin, increase entry barriers to potential competitors, gain access to downstream distribution channels that otherwise would be inaccessible, facilitate investment in highly specialized assets in which upstream or downstream players may be reluctant to invest and lead to expansion of core competencies. For Danone group, the acquisitions initially took the shape of vertical integration, acquiring Alsacian brewer Kronenbourg and Evian mineral water who were the glassmakers largest customers. This move provided content with which to fill the factorys bottles. In 1973, the company merged with Gervais Danone and began to expand internationally. (Danone group, 2007) Joint venture is one of the strategies that make Danone growth, Danone group had joint venture with many country around the world; India, Israel, Pakistan, China, Thailand etc. which we can say that Danone is the Global company as you can see on the figure11. On the bottled water division, Danone group always looking for acquiring their suppliers, suppliers competitors and also competitors company in order to produced bottle to the company which low cost and eliminate their competitors. Danone group also joint venture with the foreign company for expanding the product to the new market (Dutch mill group in Thailand). In the others hand, Danone group also sell some part or some brand of their company to others company. For example, Arvie water which belonging to Danone group was acquired by Eurokin this year. (Datamonitor, 2010) etc. Establish the non-profitable organization is one of the key marketing strategies to growth: Danone Institute International. Danone Institute International is a non-profit organisation originally established in 1997 with funding from the company. The Danone International Prize for Nutrition, worthÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬120,000, is presented biennially to honor individuals or teams that have advanced the science of human nutrition. Brand equity There are many ways to measure the brand equity which mentioned differently in past journals and researches. We cant say exactly which element can measure the brand equity effectively because it depends on many factors on the brands on each industry (Daily product, technology product etc.). Those journals and researches are not totally accepted but they failed to reject because they may works in some brands and related situation. Recall back to case study 3 that I have mention about the metrics that we can use to measure brand equity. The brand equity measurement that I want to measure can be summarizing into five main groups as shown on the table5. On each sub element of each group can be measure in two ways; quantitative and qualitative measurement. From this topic until the end of this report, we will focus deeply to the brand of bottled water division of Danone group. The big two brand that I will focus on are Evian and Volvic but we will not describe into their history or their company profile for these two brands because they have operating under Danone group. We will go through the analyzing part of their secondary data on each topic. These two brands are the top leader brand in the UK market. Brand equity measurement Loyalty Perceived Quality Leadership Association Brand Price premium Perceived Quality Perceived Value Brand Awareness Satisfaction/ Loyalty Leadership Brand Personality Brand momentum Organization Association Brand Contribution Table5: Five main groups of brand equity measurement. Now, I will explain each element briefly how they work. Loyalty is core dimension of brand equity. Brand equity blunders that go to the heart of the customer relationship should affect loyalty. A loyalty consumer base represents a barrier to entry, a basis of price premium, time to respond to competitor innovation and a bulwark against deleterious price competition. The price premium is the basic indicator for brand loyalty. For the satisfaction measurement, we can measure them by the existing consumer who can perhaps be defined as those who have used the product within a certain time such as last year (use the experiences for the last experience customer view). The loyalty is focusing on the existing consumer only. Then, it does not enough to measure the total brand equity so, we need more elements; Market behavior, the market share with price and distribution indices, the performance of a brand as measured by market share  (and/or sales with other financial information i.e. grow th rate, profitability etc.) often provides a valid and sensitive reflection of the brands standing with customers. When the brand has a relative advantage in minds of consumers, its market share should increase or least one decrease. In contrast, when competitors improve their brand equity, their share should response. Market share can be particularly detective brand equity measure when it increases as a result of reduced price or prices promotion. Thus, it is important to measure the relative market price at which the brand is being sold. Brand, Brand awareness is an important and sometimes undervalued component of brand equity. Awareness can affect perceptions and attitudes. It also reflects the salience of the brand in the customers mind. Brand momentum is a metric which is a strong indicator of short-term growth, are either technology leaders or financial institutions that emerged from the recession on a gust of increased demand and brand contribution is metric reveals how effe ctively and closely the brand has connected with its customers that also effect to the brand equity. Next, lets move to Association measures, the key association component of brand equity usually involves images dimensions that are unique to a product class or to a brand. It can be generate general measure that will work across product classes. Measurement of association can be structure around three perspectives on the brand; the brand-as-product (value), the brand-as-person (brand personality) and the brand-as-organization (organizational association). The last group that can be chosen to measure brand equity is perceived quality and leadership, perceived quality is one of the key dimensions of brand equity, it has the important attributed of being applicable across product classes. Perceived quality can be measure with scale such as the comparison of high quality vs. average quality vs. inferior quality among the brand. For the leadership, we can say that the product is the leade r in the market segment or not. If they are the leader, it should have high brand equity. We may measure it by the leading brand vs. one of the leading brand vs. not one of the leading brand or innovative, first with advance in product. Now, we will analyze the secondary data in order to understand and ranging the brand equity of bottled water industry. From the figure12 below which shown the Top bottled water brands in the world 2010 (BandZ, 2010), we can conclude that Evian has the highest brand equity and well-known brand in the world on this market division and followed by Aquafina, Perrire, Dasani, Volvic etc. because it has the highest brand value, brand contribution, brand momentum and also very high brand value change (high growth rate of brand value). [How did three elements work, we discussed at appendix1]. We can say that Evian was especially successful in this market because the brand value grew 21 percent. Evian shifted from a rational explanation of it benefits to an emotion appeal that associated the brand with youthful vitality. Its one-minute video simulation of roller-skating babies entered the Guinness World Records last year as the most watched online ad ever, with over 45 million viewing (BrandZ, 2010) We also can noticed that two brand under Danone group has the positive brand value change various with others brand that got the negative percentage of brand value change. Evian also one of the top 20 raiser brand as you can see at the figure13, Evian enjoyed badge equity, especially in emergent market, which accounted for 52 percent of sakes. Hence, we can conclude about Danone Company that they had good operation on their brands in bottled water division on 2010. As I have mentioned at number 1 on page 10, market share is one of the equipment that we can use to measure brand equity. Figure14 above represented the market share of UK bottled water market, Volvic and Evian got the highest market share in UK market by three years (Black Box) therefore we can conclude that the Volvic and Evian has the highest brand equity in UK then follow by others brand even though Volvic and Evian have negative percentage change but they still get high market share rather than others brand. Donone group still the leader in the UK market with high brand equity. Leadership is one of key measurement of brand equity as well. Danone has been on the wrong end of the trend towards seeking British waters and its two market-leading brands have seen sales decline despite developing a much more environmentally-friendly positioning in recent times. The brands continental provenance, once a major asset, now puts them at odds with a more environmentally-aware consumer. However, after spending large amounts on above-the-line advertising in 2006 and 2007 (Mintel, 2009) Danone has reduced spend in 2008 and 2009. The next year will be pivotal if it is to reverse its brands fortunes, with the company set to increase its marketing budget markedly. If and when Britain pulls out of recession, it is likely to see a less protectionist consumer. However, the concern about food miles is unlikely to go away, and if anything will increase further in importance If we look through the table6 which presented brand share of bottled water by off-trade value 2007-2010, we also see the same result as above. Volvic and Evian got the highest percentage of off-trade value. Lets move to the next element, perceived quality, the quality is one of the most important of the product which effect to the brand equity. Healthy and refreshing are two personalities that people want to get from the bottled water brand. At the figure15 on the next page, we can see the percentage of people ranging about their perception to each personality in each bottled water brand. Evain got highest number of people who have ever heard this brand (Green box) and percentage on many personalities (Purple Box); Authentic, Cool, Genuine, Stylish, Natural, Healthy and Refreshing. Volvic is also the same, it got high percentage on Healthy, Natural and Refreshing. From this secondary data we can say that these two brands have high quality on the consumer view point so, we may conclude that Evian and Volvic have higher brand equity than others brands in the market even thought this time Evian get higher percentage than Volvic but two of them are operated under Danone group. The last element that we will use to measure brand equity in this report is Satisfaction. We will consider two graphs in order to conclude the satisfaction which displayed on figure16 and figure17. From the figure16, we can say that matching their leading positions in the market and marginally higher usage than other brands, Danones Evian and Volvic have the highest retention, of roughly two in five each. They have high brand intention. For the figure17, it show the level of sactisfaction by ranking into 6 levels; excellent, good, average, poor, unsectisfy, dont know. We can see the result directly that Evian and Volvic get highest excellent level in the market. Hence, from these two figures we can conclude that Evian and Volvic have highest sectisfaction in the UK bottled water market so, these two brand also have the highest brand equity in this market as well. Again, Danones two leading brands are also the best endorsed. Most of the companies around the word have their brands which represent what they are or we can say the brand is the identification of each company. Brands represent tremendously valuable pieces of company property, capable of influencing consumer behavior, being bought and sold, and providing the security of sustained future revenues to their owner. The brand equity is the value directly or indirectly accrued by these various benefits. There are many ways to measure the brand equity, in this assignment mentioned 5 main groups to measure brand equity; Loyalty, Perceived Quality Leadership, Association, Brand and Market Behavior. Brand equity is the combination of the many strong components of the brand (good operation, reputation, performance, CSR, supply chain etc.). It can generate trust and expectation of the customer. Trust can be change into value of the brand. If any customer trust some brand, they will have high brand loyalty means they will stick with that brand. Expectation is the factor that tells the future planning of the brand. These two words are very important for the brand. We know that the brand equity is very hard to get it and it also very difficult to protect it too. The normal way to protect brand equity is Brand Identity Manual because the symbol or logo is the thing that shows the equity of the brand. Everything in this world always has two sides (advantage and disadvantages). Brand equity also has two sides; companies can build high and good brand equity but it they do not protect them carefully, it also very easy to copy and there is still possibility of negative brand equity when the brand affects the market negatively. (We can consider Toyota as example, very hard to built brand equity and also very easy to lose some of them because their small mistake on the supply chain assemble line and design process).We can notice that the brand that has high brand value should be global brand. However, some brand may successful in some country so, they will get the high value brand only on that country. Its may depend on many factors; culture, lifestyle, religion, environment etc. Finally, we can put all elements of brand equity measurement together as the new model which we called brand value chain on the figure 6 below; Brand map This brand map is analyzed by Mintel which illustrates a three-dimensional brandscape based on; Differentiation, Trust and Experience. This map gives a snapshot of the current strength and quality of selected bottled water brands, where they are in their growth and how healthy they are. From the figure 18, we can see that the differentiation of the bottled market it very low because the water cannot be changed much. The product from Danone group; Vilvic and Evian got high percentage of Trust which takes an advantage to the company in term of brand equity and loyalty.
The Tragic Heroes in Euripides Medea, Shakespeare's Othello and Boccaccio's Decameron, Tenth Day, Tenth Story Throughout many great works of literature there are numerous characters whose acts are either moral or immoral. In the works Euripides "Medea", Shakespeare's "Othello" and Boccaccio's Decameron, "Tenth Day, Tenth Story", the main characters all carry out actions which in today's day and age would be immoral and inexcusable. Medea takes on the most immoral act, in Euripides great tragic work. The morale of today varies greatly with that of the time periods in which these works were written. Gualtieri from Boccaccio's work, Othello from Shakespeare's work and Medea from Euripides' work were all, for the most part, just in their actions because of the view of the citizens during their time period. These people played an immense part in what was viewed as right and wrong, just as in today's day. In Boccaccio's Decameron, "Tenth Day, Tenth Story", the main character, Gualtieri wants to test his new wife to see how loyal she is to him. In the beginning of the play, it is portrayed to the readers that Gualtieri is a very well respected, moral man. After being told that it is nessecary to find a wife, Gualtieri states, "I will do as you request and so shall I have only myself to blame if things turn out badly, I want to be the one who chooses her, and I tell you now that if she is not honored by you as your lady...you will learn to your displeasure how serious a matter it was to compel me with your requests..." (Boccaccio 135). From this statement Gualtieri is portrayed as a compassionate man. He says he will blame no one but himself if things do not work out and once his wife is chosen he orders his people to respe... ...he commits these three immoral acts. The Decameron, "Tenth Day, Tenth Story", "Othello" and "Medea" are all tragic works, with seemingly tragic heroes. All three "heroes", Gualtieri, Othello, and Medea, hurt someone close to them in order to still retain their pride or end their jealousy towards another. Although many of the trivial standards of the present world are different than that of when the authors were writing, there are many substantial similarities, therefore judging a character based on only the morals of today would be unjust. Works Cited Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. New York: Penguin, 1982. Euripides. "Medea." The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Ed. Sarah Lawall. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999. Shakespeare, William. Othello (c. 1602) E. A. J Honigmann (Ed.) Surrey: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd. 1997.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Shug and Celie in The Color PurpleÃ Ã The relationship between Shug and Celie cuts very deep. Both of them help each other become what they really need to be. Both Celie and Shug were very oppressed people. Celie was oppressed by her lack of caring, and by her lack of self esteem. Shug is caught in other people's image of her. She is not free to become what she really wants to be, which is a loving member of a loving family, which she never really had. This is shown by the quote on page 125-6. "(Mama) never love to do nothing had to do with touching nobody, she say. I try to kiss her, she turn her mouth away. Say, Cut that out, Lillie." Celie freed Shug from the role that everybody wanted her to fit into, and Shug freed Celie from the psychological bonds that were keeping her from making of her life what she wanted it to be, by being a mixture of friend, idol, lover, and teacher. Both Celie and Shug became what they were told they would. Celie was always told that she was ugly, that she was useless, that she was worthless. Alphonso and Mr.----- never lost an opportunity to tell her so. And so Celie became and believed she was ugly, useless, and worthless. Even Shug, when she first met her, exclaimed "You sure is ugly" (pg.48). Shug was told, first by her mother and then in the "respectable people's" opinion, that she was a whore, that she was wicked, and so she became a Temptress of sorts. "Even the preacher got his mouth on Shug Avery, now she down. He take her condition for his text. He don't call no name, but he don't have to. Everybody know who he mean. He talk about a strumpet in short skirts, smoking cigarettes, drinking gin. Singing for money and taking other women mens. Talk about slut, hussy, heifer, and streetcleaner." (Pg 46). She was the woman that all the men wanted and all the women hated, because there was so much she dared to do and so little anyone could do to stop her. However, neither of them necessarily wanted to take part in those roles, and both of them felt confined in them. Shug has a certain "Venus Image" in the novel. She fits the role of the seductive woman, the temptress, the devil.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Theodicy and Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov The problem of reconciling an omnipotent, perfectly just, perfectly benevolent god with a world full of evil and suffering has plagued believers since the beginning of religious thought. Atheists often site this paradox in order to demonstrate that such a god cannot exist and, therefore, that theism is an invalid position. Theodicy is a branch of philosophy that seeks to defend religion by reconciling the supposed existence of an omnipotent, perfectly just God with the presence of evil and suffering in the world. In fact, the word Ã¢â¬Å"theodicyÃ¢â¬ consists of the Greek words Ã¢â¬Å"theos,Ã¢â¬ or God, and Ã¢â¬Å"dike,Ã¢â¬ or justice (Knox 1981, 1). Thus, theodicy seeks to find a sense of divine justice in a world filled with suffering. Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky was among those philosophical thinkers who grappled with the task of explaining why evil exists in a world created by a perfect god. Despite the powerful influence of Christianity in his early childhood and throughout his life, Dostoevsky encountered difficulties in answering this question, which he described, Ã¢â¬Å"Nature, the soul, God, love Ã¢â¬â all this is understood by the heart, not by the mindÃ¢â¬ (Gibson 1973, 9). Nevertheless, Dostoevsky not only felt obligated to discover a solution to the problem, but also Ã¢â¬Å"responsible to his fellow believers for its success or failureÃ¢â¬ (Gibson 1973, 169). This quest for a solution to the problem of theodicy ultimately led Dostoevsky to write The Brothers Karamazov, a novel that attempts to explain the need for evil in the world. In posing his solution to this problem, Dostoevsky explains the necessity of suffering for the realization of human redemption, as well as the role of Chris tÃ¢â¬â¢s atoneme... ... Christ and for his role in overcoming evil and suffering, and with the idea that the negative effects of suffering can be countered by compassionate love of others. Works Cited Bakhtin, Mikhail. Problyemi tvorchestva Dostoevskogo. Kiev: Next, 1994. Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov. Trans. Constance Garnett. New York: Signet Classic, 1986. Gibson, A. Boyce. The Religion of Dostoevsky. London: SCM Press Ltd, 1973. Hansen, Bruce. Ã¢â¬Å"DostoevskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Theodicy.Ã¢â¬ Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, 1996. At . accessed 18 November 2001. Knox, John. Ã¢â¬Å"The Problem of Evil and Suffering.Ã¢â¬ At . 18 November 2001. Kraeger, Linda, and Joe Barnhart. 1992. Dostoevsky on Evil and Atonement. Lampeter, Dyfed, Wales: The Edwin Mellen Press, Ltd.