Thursday, October 31, 2019

Tiananmen Square Massacre Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Tiananmen Square Massacre - Essay Example On April 15 of 1989, Hu Yaobang, former Communist party chief and a leading reformist, died of a heart attack. He was a popular figure among anti-communist citizens and his death was a catalyst for the protests leading up to and culminating in the Tiananmen Square Massacre. Mourners begin to gather in Tiananmen Square to express their sadness and protest the slow pace of reform in China. (, 2009) In the following days, numbers of protester in Beijing grow into thousands, and demonstrations begin appearing in cities and universities nationwide. Students and workers protest for greater freedom and democracy and an end to what they called dictatorship. Protesters complain about inflation, salaries, and housing issues. Tens of thousands of students gather outside the Great Hall of the People in Tiananmen Square on April 22nd as Hu Yaobang’s memorial service is held in spite of the city government's previous warning that they would risk severe punishment.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Ip3 training and development Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Ip3 training and development - Research Paper Example Here we can see the four level of evaluation which is reaction, learning, behaviour and results let us look at it one by one. Reaction – At this level, the trainee’s reaction to the training given is analysed. Reaction is important as it gives an insight on how the training was received by the audience. For example, the trainees look content and asking questions means they are receiving information in a better way. As per (GSA, 2014) â€Å"Although participant reactions to training are clearly not the sole indicator of its effectiveness, it is possible that their reactions represent one variable that is part of the larger homological network of variables that influence training effectiveness†. Learning – Here the measure of knowledge gained by the trainee is assessed. How much their knowledge increased can be done with the help of learning objective prepared in advance. For example it can be assessed with the help of questionnaire and role play. As per (Solar, 2013) â€Å"The third level of evaluation answers the question – are they applying what they learned†. Behaviour - Here the change in the behaviour of the trainee due to the training is looked in to. For example, the job of the employees can be observed after the training session as a follow – up measure. Government of South Australia (2014). Good for your business. In Retrieved June 26, 2014, from

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Interior Castle Or The Mansions Theology Religion Essay

Interior Castle Or The Mansions Theology Religion Essay In both Lakoff and Johnsons Metaphors We Live By and Teresa of Avilas Interior Castle or The Mansion there is a discussion of metonymy in relation to metaphor, both of which are significant crucial concepts in St. Teresas Christian conceptual metaphorical system. Within this paper I shall formulate an argument proving that St. Teresas Christian conceptual metaphorical system is coherent and falls within Lakoff and Johnsons conceptual metaphorical systems guidelines on the grounds that Teresas system appeases Lakoff and Johnsons definitions of metaphor and metonymy and all the sub-classes. In order to validate my argument I will make reference to the Teresas Interior Castle outlining the structure of her metaphorical system by covering the metaphor and metaphor sub-classes used along with identifying the target and source domains entailed in the system. Teresas Christian conceptual metaphorical system has three primary conceptual metaphors: IN GOD, IN MANSION, and IN SOUL. Teresa uses a JOURNEY metaphor to talk about the path to achieving spiritual union with God. According to Tim Perrine, St. Teresa of Avila wrote The Interior Castle as a spiritual guide to union with God. Teresa received her inspiration for this work from a religious experience she had. God gave Teresa a vision that showed her a crystal globe that contained seven mansions within it. At the centre of the globe, residing in the deepest mansion is God. Teresa interpreted this religious experience as an allegory which reveals the way for ones soul to take a journey to achieve union with God by reaching the seventh inner most mansion. The soul must go on a journey to become united with God in the seventh mansion. Each mansion represents a step closer to reaching God or climbing another level on a ladder. The Crystal Castle with seven different mansions is a metaphor re presenting the soul. The rooms closest to the seventh were able to receive a glimpse of the essence of God which resided in the seventh room. From the outside of the Crystal Castle the lights cannot be seen because darkness and impurity surrounds the outside of the castle. If one on this journey to reach the seventh room succumbs to temptation and falls victim to the devils torment, the light that was once emanating from the seventh room where God resides will as a result of being infected by sin, disappear and the venomous animals that were once held outside the Crystal Castle by Gods divine light will be able to enter the castle. In the first mansion the concern is the souls state of purity. A soul in the first mansion is surrounded by sin and is only able to reach God by seeking his divine grace through preaching humility. The second mansion is also a mansion where one practices prayer daily. The soul can only advance on its journey by humility, recognition of God in the soul and daily prayer. The third mansion is the mansion of exemplary life whereby one has such a love for God in their soul. Their soul also truly disl ikes all form of sin and the soul has a longing to do works of charity in the name of almighty God. In the fourth mansion the soul opens itself up to God, relying on him for everything and becomes purer as God increases his influence. The fifth mansion contains the initial stage of union with God whereby the soul opens itself up to embody Gods grace in order to receive his gifts. The soul commits to marry. Teresa refers to the soul as a silkworm which feeds on the sustenance of God. The soul enters a cocoon like state in order to transform into a butterfly which embodies part of Gods divine light. In the sixth mansion the soul and God are like lovers. In this mansion the soul receives an increasing amount of favors from God but is also faced with outside afflictions. In the seventh mansion the soul succeeds on its journey to achieve spiritual marriage with God as a result of the soul acquiring clarity in prayer. When one partakes in sins their soul is unable to partake in the journe y to reach God. One must be able to acquire humility and self-knowledge to understand the works of God. Once an individual on their journey learns to truly understand humility and self-knowledge they will realize the beauty of the soul as a result of Gods light. All our goodness and that good works that come from ones good are authored by God. The strength and power of ones will is strengthened by what lays behind that door of the seventh room in the Crystal Castle. The journey inside oneself that takes place in the crystal castle is likened to degrees of prayer by Teresa. One entered within themselves and penetrates the depths of their soul while gaining perfect self-knowledge along the way which ultimately leads to one reaching the seventh room where God is waiting. One who has perfect self-knowledge is able to become unified with Gods grace through a union with him which allows those who reach the seventh room to take part in his light and love. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the soul grows and profits by its communication with God (Teresa, 23), we suffer from a self-ignorance that is curable if o ne seeks to cure it. Not enough inward reflection is given to the beauty of the soul. When one doesnt reflect upon their soul which is innate they are unable to receive gifts that soul may possess, they are unable to see who is inside the soul or how important a role the soul can play in their life. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦souls without prayer are like bodies, palsied and lame, having hands and feet they cannot use.(Teresa, 43). In order to enter the castle and begin this journey into the soul one must take part in prayer and meditation. The mind must take part in this prayer, repetition praying and not taking God into consideration is not praying. Those typically found residing in the first mansion in the castle are typically those who self reflect occasionally and pray a few times a month. Usually these individuals are concerned with materialistic things. Teresa says that it is still possible for these individuals to realize the state of their soul on the road it is currently travelling and make adjustments and changes in their lives to set their soul on a positive path. Those who choose to do this begin the journey that takes place inside their soul which is referred to as the crystal or diamond castle. Those who enter the first rooms are followed by numerous venomous reptiles which are a metaphor for sin and the torments of hell. The sin of an individual creates these creatures which attempt to blind the individual from seeing the divine light of God which resides at the center of the castle in the seventh mansion When mortal sin is present in the soul it obscures Gods divine grace. Teresa uses a metaphor to describe what m ortal sin does to the soul, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦the sun in the centre of the soul, which gave it such splendour and beauty, is totally eclipsed. (Teresa, 46). The soul that is in mortal sin is separated from God and no longer a part of him. It has been tainted which causes the crystal which is a metaphor for the soul to become dark and unable to reflect the bright sun. The soul is like a crystal in the sunshine over which a thick black cloth has been thrown, so that however brightly the sun may shine the crystal can never reflect it. (Teresa, 47). Crystal is used as a metaphor to refer to a tainted mortal sin soul, throwing a black cloth over a clear crystal that was once able to reflect the sun will no longer be able to do so. The meaning behind this is that sinning taints the soul and creates a disconnection between an individual and God. As long as that thick black cloth is there, the soul will not be able to experience what the bright sun representing Gods divine grace has to offer. Teresa refers to the soul as a tree which is planted by a river. The tree receives life from the sun which enables it to bear fruit. The sun is a metaphor for God and the fruit that comes from the tree are metaphors for good deeds and good actions. Thus, God is the initiator behind those good deeds. When in the first mansion within the crystal castle one is able to be humble on this journey and that one individual should only think of God when doing any good deed or action. In the second mansion one is taught how important prayer is to reach God. One must retire into them self in order to truly know thyself; without retiring into the soul to contemplate life and ones actions, heaven will always be out of their reach. In the second mansion the soul is able to take more charge on its spiritual journey. Those who reach the third mansion are those who realize the issues that arise when one trusts in their own strength. The individuals in the third mansion live a balanced life which is achieved through prayer, penance, charity, and abstaining from sin. Through this the individual is able to go farther in their spiritual journey to become a part of Gods divine grace. In this stage of the journey the individual who has been able to enter the third mansion will have their soul baptized in the Holy Spirit. As a result of this the individual on their spiritual journey has their soul opened up and is filled with the gifts God has given them through the Holy Spirit. Teresa states that An earthy king may have subjects yet all do not enter his court (Teresa, 41). This is a metaphor which refers to those disciples of God on their spiritual journey. God may have many children and followers but this does not mean everyone is granted access into his kingdom in heaven. Nor should anyone assume that because they are a follower or believer in Him that they will automatically gain access into the kingdom because of this. On the spiritual journey in the soul those who enter each mansion will learn to be jumble and realize that they are a servant of God and entering his kingdom is something one earns by journeying within oneself and joining God in the seventh mansion. Humility is the ointment for our woundsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦God, who is our Physician, will come and heal us. (Teresa, 45). Teresa uses a metaphor for humility by describing it as the ointment for our wounds; she makes a point to concentrate on humility because one should learn to be humble in order to succeed on this spiritual journey. Teresa refers to God as a physician who will heal our wounds; this metaphor is used to show that no matter what one must go through on this journey God will always be there to heal the wounds of those who seek him. On this spiritual journey in the soul one must have e an everlasting unyielding love for God. According to Teresa true love for God is one of the essential things one must learn to pay à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦no attention to the weaknesses of nature which might retard us. (Teresa, 45). God will look after the individual on their spiritual journey and reward them in proportion to their great love for God. Teresa presents a metaphor of nestling baby birds that are taught by watching elder birds. Their flight makes us try to soar, like nestlings taught by the elder birds, who, though they cannot fly at first, little by little imitate their parents: I know the great benefit of this. (Teresa, 47) This metaphor is used to teach that one should not give up if they find a trial on this spiritual journey difficult, they should consult a person who is detached from the worldly things and seeks spiritual marriage with God. Just like a baby bird learning to fly is taught by the elder more experienced bir d to fly, an individual on a spiritual journey trying to reach unity with God should consult an elder who has learnt how to get through trials and tribulations in order to become one with God. Their soul is not yet strong enough and may succumb to the suffering that their soul will be exposed to during the trials on their spiritual journey. In the fourth mansion one must practice the prayer of the quiet; this prayer is quiet and passive which allows one to travel deeper on their spiritual journey in to the soul where they meet with the divine grace of God. The soul is no longer dependant on the individuals will but becomes dependant on God. The natural and supernatural meet in this mansion; the soul receives natural understanding from God, this can be thought of as the mind being impregnated with wisdom directly from the gifts of God. Teresa uses a metaphor to explain two types of prayer one will use in the fourth mansion. The metaphor uses two fountains with basins that fill with water; these fountains are filled two different ways. One fountain receives its water from a distance that travels through numerous waterworks and pipes. The other fountain receives its water directly from the source which is the spring, no machinery or aqua-ducts are needed. The water that runs through the waterworks and pipes represents sens ible devotion which is obtained through meditation. This water is obtained through the results of an individuals endeavors which are thoughts, labor of ones mind, and meditating on created things. The fountain that receives the water directly from the spring itself is a representation for God. Prayer of Quiet or divine consolation receives supernatural favors directly from God himself just like the fountain which receives water directly from the spring. This greatness from God that presents one with divine joy is presented in the soul itself according to Teresa. This transition between the two fountains represents the individual on this spiritual journey breaking away from the bonds they once had with the outside world in order to be able to enter deep prayer which focuses on the importance of love; true love that flows directly from the spring itself which is God. On page sixty-three, Teresa presents another IN metaphor. We should rather abandon our souls into the hands of God, leaving him to do as he chooses with us, as far as possible forgetting all self-interest and resigning ourselves entirely to himself. (Teresa, 63) God is a container metaphor whereby the soul which is the target domain of the source domain. The source domain is interior castle that has seven mansions one must go through in order to achieve union with God. The journey present here is a spiritual journey where the soul must enter IN the interior castle in order to become one with God through spiritual union. God is the container object in the container metaphor along w ith the interior castle which is also the container object of the container metaphor. Throughout the rest of the journey IN the interior castle the soul opens itself up to receive more gifts from God, ultimately leading up to the seventh mansion which is the mansion of spiritual marriage where the individuals soul becomes one with God through spiritual union.

Friday, October 25, 2019

William Wallace :: essays research papers

William Wallace, one of Scotlands greatest national heroes to ever live, had had enough of King Edward I (Longshanks), king of Englands rule over Scotland. The patriotic Scottish outlaw organized a rebellion to stand up to Edwards rule. Wallace became a hero among the Scots but was considered a traitor by the English. Ultimately Scotland did win its freedom, but Wallaces own campaign was a failure. The main reasons for the failure of William Wallaces military campaign are: The lack of leadership on the Scottish side, the lack of cooperation among the Scottish nobles, and the fact that the Scots were greatly outnumbered, poorly trained and poorly armed. The first point that will be discussed is the lack of Scottish leadership. It would be impossible for any army to have many, if any, victories when there is no true leader to stand up and lead. Scotlands king, Alexander III, had, died after riding off a cliff during a wild storm.1 There was no heir to the Scottish throne because King Alexander III had outlived all of his children.2 Without a king, Scotland was pretty much lost. They had no direction as to what to do or when to do it. Without a king, the next in line to rule would have been the nobles. The problem with the nobles is that they were all too stubborn and proud to be ordered around by anyone, or cooperate with any of the other nobles. They would fight in their own good time and wherever they saw fit, but they would accept orders from no one.3 It was bad enough that Scotland had no king but the defiance by the nobles to lend Wallace aid did not help Wallaces campaign at all. The little leadership the Scottish rebels had was not enough. William Wallace is said to have been an excellent fighter. Unmatched in strength, speed, stamina or skill with a claymore, but despite his ability to fight, he was very inexperienced in commanding an army. The only thing he had ever led was a handful of loyal rebels on raids. The Scottish spirits were high but their courage was not enough to overcome the lack of organization.4 Thomas B. Costain says, The best fighting force in the world would be helpless if it lacked authority behind it to supply arms and food and scouting facilities to keep an eye on enemy movements.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Unity day

The little short film on the site titled â€Å"Stile Post† or the telephone game made a little impact on how I view our world today. They start off the film with Miriam the little girl basically picking on Paul, the only colored kid In the class, by saying that Paul never washes, and passing it to the next person. That person then passes that little bit of information to the next kid, who passes It to the next kid, and so on. So this group of children could of Just kept the rumor that Paul never washes going around until It was whispered into Pall's ear.One kid In the circle changes the rumor from Paul never washes to Miriam Is In love with Paul. This film shows that plucking on other races and bullying can be stopped at a young age, one kid from that class stopped the ugly secret and made a funnier one to sort of get back at the little girl. Rumors can be spread so easily In our society and people can put a stop to It by changing the rumor to better the person the rumor Is ab out. The film â€Å"Crutch† was amazing, I loved every second of this film, how Bill Shannon or â€Å"Choirmaster† that has been dealt some bad cards in life has overcame his medical problems.He has a mode of transportation on a skateboard, break dances, and gets around super easily, all while having bilateral hip deformity. Just by listening to him speak in the film, I can tell he loves his life, and nothing really brings him down. It is just a great motivational story for everyone, no matter how bad you believe you think your life is, always remember there is someone out there that has it worst than you and is enjoying every second of their life. So never out yourself down do exactly as Bill said in the film â€Å"Take what is thrown at you in the best way that you can, and evolve your skills in that manner†.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Bullying at School Essay

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Design and typesetting by SCRE Information Services. Being bullied is a frightening experience. No-one likes to think that it will happen to them or to people they know and care about. But bullying does happen to some children and many more find themselves on the fringes of it by being aware that it is happening. Everyone can play a part in reducing the damage bullying does. Bullying cannot be stopped by pupils, parents or teachers acting alone. Schools are finding new ways of tackling bullying. All of these aim to get people talking about the problem and working together to find solutions. Although this is not easy, it is the only effective way to stop bullying. Young people who are being bullied feel powerless to stop it happening. They may be angry, frightened or bewildered. They are unable to concentrate on their lessons. Some pretend to be ill or truant because they are so frightened. A few have even taken their own lives. They lose confidence in themselves, and this low self-esteem may have life-long consequences. It is important that all children and young people become aware of what bullying is and how their actions affect the lives of others. Encouraging the development of social and moral awareness is the responsibility of both home and school. The families of people who are being bullied feel angry and frustrated on their behalf. These emotions are natural. You have a right to feel angry if your child is bullied at school. But strong feelings sometimes lead to actions which may make the situation worse rather than better. Of course bullies must expect to be punished, but punishment alone will not solve the problem. Unless it is backed up by other actions, it may just drive it underground. Parents, families, teachers and pupils must all be prepared to talk and work together so that everybody understands how others feel s 1 In this book you will find guidance on what to do if you think someone in your family is being bullied; and information on how schools are trying to tackle bullying. â€Å"If you are worried discuss this with a teacher. † What is Bullying and What Can You Do About It? Bullying is not easy to define. Sometimes it involves hitting or kicking. But threats, teasing, and taunting are more common and can be more damaging. The word ‘bullying’ is used to describe many different types of behaviour ranging from teasing or deliberately leaving an individual out of a social gathering or ignoring them, to serious assaults and abuse.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Health Risks from Exposure to Phthalates

Health Risks from Exposure to Phthalates The non-profit Environmental Working Group launched the Not Too Pretty campaign to raise awareness about the dangers of phthalates, industrial chemicals that are used as solvents in many cosmetics. Most of the mainstream hair sprays, deodorants, nail polishes and perfumes that millions of people use every day contain these harmful chemicals. Phthalates are also employed as plastic softeners in many different consumer products, including children’s toys and medical devices. Why are phthalates dangerous? Shown to damage the liver, kidneys, lungs and reproductive systems in animal studies, phthalates can be absorbed through the skin or inhaled. Scientists at government agencies in both the U.S. and Canada agree that exposure to the chemicals could cause a wide range of health and reproductive problems in people. It has been very difficult, however, to determine the minimum level of exposure when these problems arise. For many of us, our exposure to phthalates may be low on any given day, but we absorb these small quantities of chemicals frequently, over decades.   Manufacturers use phthalates because they cling to the skin and nails to give perfumes, hair gels and nail polishes more staying power. But a recent study by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that five percent of women between age 20 and 40 had up to 45 times more phthalates in their bodies than researchers initially hypothesized. CDC found phthalates in virtually every person tested, but the largest concentrations 20 times higher than the rest of the population were found in women of child-bearing age. Another study, led by Dr. Shanna Swan of the University of Missouri, identified developmental abnormalities in male infants correlating to high phthalate levels in their mothers’ bodies. More studies associated phthalates breast cancer and with hormonal disruptions in young girls and women. Currently, potential links to obesity and metabolic issues are being investigated.   Industry Group Denies Risk Meanwhile, the industry-backed American Chemistry Council asserts, â€Å"There is no reliable evidence that any phthalate has ever caused a health problem for a human from its intended use.† The group accuses organizations of â€Å"cherry-picking† results â€Å"showing impacts on test animals to create unwarranted concern about these products.† EWG spokesperson Lauren E. Sucher urges people- especially women who are pregnant, nursing or planning on becoming pregnant- to avoid phthalates. EWG maintains a free online database named Skin Deep, which list lotions, creams, and polishes that contain phthalates. It also provides information on many other chemical compounds found in products beyond just cosmetics, including sunscreens, baby products, and toothpaste. Banned in Europe, Not U.S. or Canada A 2003 European Union directive bans phthalates in cosmetics sold in Europe, but U.S. and Canadian regulators have not been so proactive, despite mounting evidence of potential harm. Health advocates were temporarily relieved when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it would begin enforcing a 1975 law requiring labels on products with ingredients that havent been safety tested. But such labels remain to be seen, even though 99 percent of cosmetics contain one or more untested ingredients.

Monday, October 21, 2019

A List of Free Printable History Worksheets

A List of Free Printable History Worksheets Many different teaching approaches can bring history alive for your students. Add these printable history worksheets to your studies to reinforce your lessons and allow students to hone their knowledge of important historical events and people. President Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln PrintablesUse word searches, vocabulary quizzes, crossword puzzles, and coloring pages to help students learn about Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States. Activities also teach about the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial and the first lady from 1861 to 1865, Mary Todd Lincoln. Black History Month: Famous Firsts Black History Month PrintablesAt this link, teachers can find important background information about Black History Month in addition to worksheets and other activities focused on famous firsts among black Americans. The Famous Firsts Challenge, for example, has students match up a famous first for black Americans, such as the first African-American to go into space, with the correct name from a list of choices. Chinas Long and Ancient History Chinese History PrintablesWith a history spanning thousands of years, China is for many people the subject of a lifetime of study. While your students probably wont embark on such an endeavor, this link offers handouts to introduce your students to concepts related to Chinese culture and government. One handout also presents a number matching activity for students to learn how to count to 10 in Chinese. The American Civil War U.S. Civil War PrintablesAmericas Civil War might be the most studied and debated subject in U.S. history. Using the printables at this link, students can become more familiar with the names, places, and events that defined this crucial era for the American republic. Lewis and Clark and the American Frontier Lewis and Clark PrintablesExploration and expansion of the American frontier are essential elements to understanding the United States as a nation and a people. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were hired to explore the Louisiana Territory that President Thomas Jefferson bought from the French. With the activities and worksheets at this link, students learn more about issues related to Lewis and Clark and their travels. Medieval Times Medieval Era PrintablesThe medieval era is a fascinating time for many students, with tales of knights and jousting as well as political and religious intrigue. Among the activities at this link is a detailed coloring sheet for learning all about a suit of armor. Also included is Medieval Times Theme Paper on which students can write a story, poem or essay about the period. New Seven Wonders of the World New 7 Wonders of the World PrintablesWith an announcement in July 2007, the world was introduced to the New Seven Wonders of the World. The Pyramids of Giza, the oldest and only Ancient Wonder still standing, is included as an honorary candidate. The printables here teach students about the Pyramids and the others: the Great Wall of China, the Taj Mahal, Machu Picchu, Chichen Itza, Christ the Redeemer, the Colosseum, and Petra. American Revolutionary War Revolutionary War PrintablesBy learning about the Revolutionary War students discover the actions and principles of the nations founders. With the activities at this link, students gain a good overview of vocabulary and names related to the Revolution, as well as particular events, such as the Surrender of Cornwallis and Paul Reveres Ride. Womens History Month (March) Womens History Month PrintablesMarch in the United States is National Womens History Month, which recognizes and celebrates womens contributions to Americas history, society, and culture. The printables at this link introduce many important women with significant historical legacies whose names students might not immediately know. These worksheets and activities will heighten students appreciation for the role of women in U.S. history. World War II Historical Timeline WWII History PrintablesStudents will use and expand their knowledge of World War II to complete the activities at this link, which include a crossword puzzle; spelling, alphabetizing and vocabulary sheets; and coloring pages.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Why We Have Factory Farming, and How to End It

Why We Have Factory Farming, and How to End It Factory farming is the intensive confinement of farmed animals raised for food. The technique was invented by scientists in the 1960s who knew that there was no way to continue feeding animal products to an increasing human population without a significant increase in efficiency. But if so many people are concerned about animal welfare and object to factory farming, why do we have factory farming? Scientists, economists, and farmers alike argue that in order to meet the demand for commercially produced meats, either too much land or too much food and fuel would be required to allow all animals used for that purpose the freedoms animal rights activists demand they have. Conversely, these animal rights activists argue the mistreatment and slaughter of animals for human consumption is not only inhumane but morally wrong. Why We Need Factory Farming Allowing cows, pigs, and chickens to roam free requires more land, water, food, labor, and other resources than factory farming. Roaming animals consume more food and water because they are exercising and therefore, in order to produce meat for human consumption, must be nourished accordingly or risk their meat being too tough or fatty. Furthermore, rounding up and transporting roaming animals requires manpower and fuel. Grass-fed animals also require more food because the animals gain weight slower on a grass diet than they do with a manufactured, concentrated feed. There are currently seven billion people on the planet, many of whom eat the animal products produced by factory farming. And while all animal agriculture is inefficient because crops are fed to animals instead of being fed to people directly, the increased inefficiency of allowing animals to roam free is the reason factory farming was invented and popularized. The Opposition to the Meat Industry From a more cynical perspective, factory farming exists because agribusiness cares nothing about the rights and welfare of the animals, and continues to lobby against any attempts to better the animals condition. However, giving the animals more room is not a feasible solution because we are already destroying our environment with animal agriculture. The solution is not to make animal agriculture more inefficient. The answer might be to move away from animal dependency as a culture entirely. From both an environmental perspective and an animal rights perspective, veganism is the only solution to factory farming. Some scientists predict that with modern consumption trends of cattle alone, the global demand will outweigh the supply, causing a shortage of beef and potentially the extinction of that source of animal protein.   Further, environmentalists argue that factory farming, especially of cattle, produces a high concentration  of methane that is released into the atmosphere, speeding global warming. Transport and processing of the meat itself also pollute the environment with dangerous waste byproducts.   Any way you look at it, factory farming is necessary for the continued consumption of animal meat and products - but is that the ethical way to move forward as a planet, and is it sustainable? Science says no, but the current legislature in the U.S. says otherwise. Perhaps it is time, as a nation, the United States move away from commercial farming altogether.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Bio-psycho-social perspective Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Bio-psycho-social perspective - Essay Example For society, the most troubling of these is the remorseless and fearless antisocial personality. Between normality and abnormality there is not a gulf but a somewhat arbitrary line. This demarcation depends on how atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable a person’s behavior is (Covinsky, 2007). For the patient who is psychologically healthy, there are numerous motivations to recover. Patients are generally frustrated with their physical symptoms and difficulties with functioning. The desire to be healthy motivates them to strive to overcome whatever hurdles are in their path. Most patients are able to persevere through the course of treatment and recover. However in some cases whether due to the severity of the medical condition, incorrect diagnosis, inadequate treatment, preexisting psychological vulnerabilities, complicating psychological reactions or factors in the social environment some patients fill to recover and instead enter a downward spiral. A number of factors can contribute to this downward spiral (Gatchel, 1994). The psycho medical vortex provides a paradigm of how biopsychological disorders become intractable. Using this paradigm a variety of interventions can be identified alternately, when a seemingly untreatable condition has already appeared this model can offer some suggestions as to how to identify the road blocks to recovery and where to intervene (Gatchel, 1994). When chronic pain appears within the context of biopsychosocial disorder, comprehensive assessment requires assessing all the biological, psychological and social aspects of the condition and understanding the relationship between them. By correctly assessing the type of biopsychosocial disorder that is being treated and understanding the history or how it developed a more effective treatment plan can be developed. Research suggest that when the biological psychological and social aspects of

Friday, October 18, 2019

UNIX Operating System History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

UNIX Operating System History - Essay Example Moreover, the sixth edition in 1975 was not associated with AT&T and became popular in the academic world because it was bundled with rich features, powerful, free of cost and compatible with common platforms and most importantly possess a complete source code (Fox 1807-1814). Likewise, in the year 1979, Ken was working with his colleague Bill joy and Ozalp Babaoglu at the University of California, Berkeley to improve UNIX that resulted in a new version known as Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) UNIX (Fox 1807-1814). Moreover, after consolidating all internal research and development versions of UNIX systems to release its own version, AT&T releases its commercial version of UNIX named as UNIX System III. It is possible for an operating system to be matured as well as state of the art simultaneously? If it is UNIX, then the answer would be â€Å"Yes.† UNIX has contributed in the Information technology sector for the last 25 years. Millions of installations conducted on vari ous platforms and UNIX has proved to be organized and scalable. Operating systems are compared by their functionality and performance. UNIX has contributed immensely in recent years. ... By the UNIX fast XML proxy support, web services are developed in no time on a distributed system as compared to the previous server architecture. IBM 32 way UNIX servers were also launched in year 2001 with the code name â€Å"Regatta†. The microprocessor architecture comprises of 1 GHz 64 Bit Power 4. This UNIX server is capable of self-healing technology and to decrease system failures. The system is capable to divide into 16 virtual servers which enable the businesses to integrate several machines in to one (Popovich 11). The Client-server model of UNIX was the core components for the growth of Internet and reshaping of the distributed systems networks. Inter process communication in the UNIX operating system involves the connection between the system components logically and physically. It supports real time network applications which allow the user to exchange messages in an interactive session. UNIX is known as a command line interface due to nonexistence of a GUI envir onment Today UNIX is equipped with a GUI along with dynamic communication functionalities. Some of the registered UNIX products are HP-UX, IBM AIX, SCO UnixWare, SGI IRIX, Sun Solaris etc. UNIX Directory Structure UNIX Directory Structure Figure 1.1 UNIX Shells A shell can be defined as an entity that processes user input on the behalf of computer. The bourne shell was the first shell that was programmed by Stephen Bourne deputed at Bell Laboratories (Verma, n.d). Likewise, Bourse shell was an integrated function of the UNIX operating system. Moreover, Kourne shell that was subset of Bourne shell was coded by IBM. However, Kourne shell is not supported by all

Online social entrepreneurship Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Online social entrepreneurship - Essay Example Eden project currently employs 650 people and offers 300 people the opportunity to volunteer for them. The Eden project works as a social enterprise as all the profits made are re-invested back into the project. The project itself works on behalf of a trust by Eden Project Limited; this trust is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Eden trust. The Eden project is also a registered charity in the UK (number 1093070). The largest funds which helped built the project came through The Millennium Commission which raised over  £56 million adding on the EU and Southwest Regional Development Agency also raised approximately  £50 million between them. In the financial year 2012-2013 notable companies like Rio Tinto, MasterCard and EDF Energy helped donate funds that financed the Edens projects short-term and long-term costs. The project has helped build the local economy by contributing over  £1 Billion since 2001. The overall cost of building the Eden project is  £140 million. After a lot of consideration as a group we decided to work on the Eden Project mainly because most of us had an interest towards the environment and had prior knowledge about different species of plants. We also believed the Eden project was very relevant towards us as the Eden project mainly targets students that want to explore and learn about the environment. Nowadays, social entrepreneurship is becoming more popular. As a matter of fact, many theories have been written about social entrepreneurship and its shared values. Even though there is a wide selection of literature concerning these theories, the aim of this review will be focusing on three areas that appear often in the literature reviewed. The first area will be the nature of social entrepreneurship, then the online part of the social entrepreneurship and the enhancement of the social value throughout different frameworks. However, the literature reviewed

Provide an argument for the claim that (some) mental states are not Essay - 1

Provide an argument for the claim that (some) mental states are not identical to any brain state - Essay Example Furthermore, it will discuss the relevant concepts in philosophy that will either affirm or negate these suppositions. In order to make this possible, the monist and dualist concepts are also discussed. Some mental states (beliefs) are not identical to any brain state The first argument being focused in this paper is the difference between mental and brain states. As mentioned earlier, these two are different concepts. Many people are confused and often use these two interchangeably. The mental state has a deeper context compared to that of the brain state. This is so because it refers to the state of a person’s thoughts regarding pain or happiness, what a person believes in, and also ideas and aspirations. On the other hand, the brain state refers to the literal condition of the nervous system like a brain activity. According to Adam Sennet (chap. 5), some mental states, like beliefs, are not identical or similar to any brain state. This is because beliefs are not part of any physiological activities of the body particularly inside the brain. the famous philosopher Descartes (qtd. in Carruthers 7) postulated that the mind is not spatial but has the ability to think, while the body is spatial but is unable to think; hence, the body is only capable of biological and physiological activities. ... nd Y are very similar, then they should have the very same attributes, which is not true in the concept of the mind (beliefs) and the body (brain state). Hence, if X and Y have different attributes, they can never be considered as identical. The differences in the mental and brain states include the argument of certainty (Wright). The mind can be certain about pain or desires but the brain cannot be certain about anything because it lacks a logical attribute. There is a great disparity between the mental state and the brain state as clearly stated by this Law. There are, however, some arguments by other philosophers like Carruthers that the Leibniz’ Law does not apply to mental states including beliefs, pains, and desires. He argues that if X and Y are not very similar substances, then X and Y must have the same intrinsic attributes or properties (Carruthers 8). He believes that the mental state does not have a property of belief. Thus, he sticks to his argument that the two s ubstances are very similar because they are one (Wright). The Monist Concept This concept does not hold the proposition that there are two kinds of substances. It holds that there is only one kind of substance and that the brain and the mind are just the same. There are, however, two separate views about this one substance. These are: materialism and idealism (Carruthers 6). Materialism is an idea that all that exists are material or physical, while idealism is an idea which states that all that exists are ultimately mental. These are the two ideas in the Monist concept and there are philosophers who believe on either one or another but not both. The materialist does not believe that there is such a thing as the mental state and so they are similar or identical to absolutely nothing, because

Thursday, October 17, 2019

APA Forms and Format Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

APA Forms and Format - Essay Example It is also apparent that many families cannot afford health care and proper housing, thus leading to many unresolved cases of health and illnesses in many communities. Obesity is a critical health and therapeutic problem in both the developing and developed countries. It has significantly increased during the last two decades (El-Helaly, Kamel, Abd-Elaziz, Elwan & Nabih, 2009; Alsayed, Gad & Azab, 2007). According to Alsayed et al. (2007), obesity subjects individuals to metabolic and endocrine disorders. Such complications can pose significant risks to children’s health and general life performance. Additionally, it can lead to an increase in many complications and illnesses which further results in obstruction of a country’s economic progress and the development of an entire health care system (Parikh, Edelman, Uwaifo, Freedman, Semega-Janneh, Reynolds, & Yanovski, 2004; Wang & Dietz, 2002; Afridi, Khattak, Safdar & Khan, 2003). In conclusion, overweight children are at risk of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperthyroidism. It is clear that BMI may be a significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency obese and non-obese children and adolescents. Considering the above cases, it is recommended that obese children, especially those with high body mass index, take routinely vitamin D supplementary treatment. Additionally, they should go for routine screening with regard to vitamin D

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

A letter to editor in wall street journal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

A letter to editor in wall street journal - Essay Example the problem of unemployment in the nation that attracted my attention, similarly as it might have done to the majority of sentient inhabitants of the US. The recent financial shock of 2008 was certainly quite destructive that led to multiple issues in the economic as well as in the political structure of our country. One such consequence, as the experts called attention to, was the very rising unemployment rate in the economy. According to the statistical data, unemployment rate has increased rapidly in the US since the early 2009 which currently accounts above 9% on an average. It is indeed one of the most serious drawbacks for a developed economy such as the US which require instantaneous concern of the government with the purpose of its revival. The declared economic plan by the President of the US also depicts similar concern, but in an extended demeanor taking into account both the economic and political aspects. The plan emphasizes on payroll tax cuts that would surely lessen the burden of employers and employees in the presently hostile business environment of the economy. It also includes extension in the investment grants for education and infrastructure sector. Attempts shall be made to boost the labor market through added concerns regarding programs for the jobless under the declared plan. On an aggregate, this planning shall cost $447 billion being enacted from 2012. Therefore, as a short-term recovery strategy, this plan shall certainly encourage the employers to hire more man power and thus make larger contribution to the overall GDP growth. Where economists in this context reveal the probable short-term benefits of the strategy, politicians have been noted to continue with their fair game of opposition with due regards to the components of the planning. The most noticeable questions augmented by the politicians in this context, whether a democrat or a republican, are related to the approval of the amount asked for the plan and its

APA Forms and Format Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

APA Forms and Format - Essay Example It is also apparent that many families cannot afford health care and proper housing, thus leading to many unresolved cases of health and illnesses in many communities. Obesity is a critical health and therapeutic problem in both the developing and developed countries. It has significantly increased during the last two decades (El-Helaly, Kamel, Abd-Elaziz, Elwan & Nabih, 2009; Alsayed, Gad & Azab, 2007). According to Alsayed et al. (2007), obesity subjects individuals to metabolic and endocrine disorders. Such complications can pose significant risks to children’s health and general life performance. Additionally, it can lead to an increase in many complications and illnesses which further results in obstruction of a country’s economic progress and the development of an entire health care system (Parikh, Edelman, Uwaifo, Freedman, Semega-Janneh, Reynolds, & Yanovski, 2004; Wang & Dietz, 2002; Afridi, Khattak, Safdar & Khan, 2003). In conclusion, overweight children are at risk of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperthyroidism. It is clear that BMI may be a significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency obese and non-obese children and adolescents. Considering the above cases, it is recommended that obese children, especially those with high body mass index, take routinely vitamin D supplementary treatment. Additionally, they should go for routine screening with regard to vitamin D

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Short stories of Sherlock Holmes Essay Example for Free

Short stories of Sherlock Holmes Essay Title: Review two stories for a magazine called Crime Monthly, saying why such old examples of the crime genre are still popular today. Introduction Many people say that the short stories of Sherlock Holmes were the best detective stories ever written. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote these stories, which were first published in the Strand magazine in 1890. These stories included A Scandal in Bohemia, The Hound of the Baskervilles, The Copper Beaches, A Case of Identity, The Man With The Twisted Lip and others. People in Victorian England really enjoyed reading the stories, the main reason for which was that there were many murderers running free at the time, which the police force couldnt catch so people didnt believe that the police was sufficient. Arthur Conan Doyles character was very liked because no case seemed to challenge him and he always defeated the evil villain. The Red Headed League was first published in 1891 and The Speckled Band was first published in 1892 in the Strand magazine. One of the key elements of Victorian detective stories is that the crime must be solved by logical means, not by supernatural causes or by a lucky accident. This is what happened in all of the Sherlock Holmes stories. In both The Red Headed League and The Speckled Band Sherlock Holmes solves the crimes by using powers of deduction and his own intelligence. Another important element of Victorian detective stories is that the investigator must not wittingly conceal clues or the reasons for his deductions from the reader. At the end of both stories Sherlock Holmes explains to the villain and to his companion Dr Watson how he solved the crime. Even though the stories of Sherlock Holmes are over a century old they are still read and loved by millions of people across the world today. I think the main reason for this is because Arthur Conan Doyle used many techniques, like red herrings, twists, and very detailed descriptions of the characters and settings which makes the reader feel as though they are part of the story and encourages the reader to try and solve the mystery themselves. Also, even though the stories were written over 100 years the crime that was going on then is still going on now and people still like the thought of villains always being punished, so the Victorian society is very similar to our society at the moment. Arthur Conan Doyle used very detailed descriptions of the setting and location in the two stories to create a certain atmosphere. The Head Headed League was set in London, mainly around Saxe-Couburg Square, in 1891. Arthur Conan Doyle created an atmosphere by saying that Saxe-Couburg Square is a pokey, little, shabby-genteel place, which immediately makes the reader imagine a worn out and cramped place, also it makes the reader suspect that something bad happens there, because there is often trouble in such places. The Square is described as being dingy, which makes the reader think that the place is dark and dirty with smoke and grime. The writer even describes the atmosphere as being uncongenial so obviously it is not a very pleasant place to live in. This atmosphere is created so that the reader can deduct that Jabez Wilson wasnt very well off and that he desperately needed the money that Mr Duncan Ross gave him to look after his home and business. The Speckled Band was mainly set in Stoke Moran, Surrey, in 1883. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created an atmosphere by saying that the house is half renovated and half in a ruin. The building itself is described as having a high central portion and two wings. This sounds like it once was a very big and grand house, but over the past couple of years Dr Roylott didnt have enough money to look after it. He didnt have enough money to look after the whole house so he modernized half of the house, so the left half was left with broken windows blocked with wooden boards and with the roof being partly caved in. In contrast, the right part of the house was comparatively modern. This atmosphere is created so that the reader can deduct that Dr Roylott didnt have enough money to look after the house, and the extra sum of money that would go to Helen Stoner after her marriage would have ruined him. The main characters in all of the Sherlock Holmes stories are Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson. Dr Watson is Holmes colleague, who appears to be a lot weaker then him in solving crimes. The main reason for this, seems that Dr Watson doesnt notice things that Holmes does, like when they were both observing Mr Jabez Wilson in The Red Headed League Watson noticed the outside appearance, such as that he was wearing baggy grey shepherds check trousers, whereas Holmes noticed much deeper things, such as that hes done manual labour because his right hand is bigger than his left. Also the language that Holmes uses is a lot more mysterious then the language that Watson uses which suggests to the reader that Watson is less educated then Holmes. Holmes uses many different techniques to solve the crimes in both stories, mainly he follows clues and uses his own intelligence. Holmes is very skilful, he is not only a great detective but also a master of disguise. This was shown in both The Man With The Twisted Lip and A Scandal in Bohemia, where Holmes disguised himself as a drug addict and an old man. Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson are similar to a few modern day detectives like Inspector Morse and Detective Lewis because they too follow clues to solve the crime and they work as a duo. Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson follow clues to make deductions and solve the crimes. The first clue in The Red Headed League was that the clerk agreed to work for half wages which meant that he was either not very clever of he had a special reason for wanting to work at the pawnbrokers. Holmes assumes the second is true. The advertisement for the Red Headed League was another clue because it seemed almost as though it was targeted at Jabez Wilson, which was very suspicious. The nature of the job was another clue because it was use-less therefore we could deduct that the job was merely an activity that would get Jabez Wilson out of the shop. Then when Jabez Wilson described his assistant Vincent Spaulding, Holmes instantly recognized the description and realized that his real name is John Clay and hes a murderer. Spauldings interest in photography and his stained wrinkled trousers suggested that he did something dirty in the seller, like maybe he was digging a tunnel. Then Holmes tapped on the payment in front of Jabez Wilsons shop and the tunnel wasnt there, so he went to the back of the shop to find a City and Suburban bank, which is probably the place were the tunnel is going to. The fact that the Red Headed League was dissolved was a clue to that the digging had finished. And the fact that nineteenth-century banks were closed on weekends and Mondays so Holmes knew that John Clay would rob the bank on Saturday, leaving plenty of time to get away.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Maori people in New Zealand

The Maori people in New Zealand This essay will critically analyze Kevin Glynn and A.F. Tysons article, Indigeneity, media and cultural globalization. In this article Glynn and Tyson speak on behalf of the Maori people in New Zealand and discuss factors surrounding globalization of western media and its influences on the indigenous people. This critical essay will focus primarily on Glynns and Tysons positive and negative issues surrounding globalization, funding concerns for indigenous media and benefits surrounding glocalization. Globalization, which is the reduction of differences between nations whether cultural or ideological (Straubhaar et al 2009, 503), as a negative issue is expressed quite well within this article. Among these issues discussed within the article, two primary issues that were of greater interest and more detail were the deconstruction of the indigenous culture and the lack of funds for media related indigenous projects.(Glynn and Tyson 2007, 208) The reason why globalization has such a massive effect on these cultures is that the media (i.e. television, magazines, radio) is barraged with foreign, in this case western, cultural media which overflows and almost completely obliterates any trace of the old culture that once was there. This idea revolves around the hypodermic needle theory, where ideas and beliefs from outside media are metaphorically injected into the minds of these indigenous cultures to the point where their former culture is clouded by this new influence and sometimes lo st forever.(Straubhaar et al 2009, 414-415) In the case of the Maori they were granted funding for a television station and a dramatic television show (Glynn and Tyson 2007, 207), but compared to the ever-growing western populous and media those indigenous populations will find it very difficult to sustain some essence of their culture within the society. Glynn and Tyson refer to the lack of funding for major media projects for indigenous people (Glynn and Tyson 2007, 208), which may have been an issue in 2007 but as of 2009-2010 the funding for these media projects have actually increased to an extra $20.1 million (Maori Television 2009) which allows for a much richer variety of television and film and will assist in stabilizing the Maori culture. A broad claim is also made ending the funding portion of the article which refers to a worldwide lack of funding for dramatic indigenous television which in fact is not quite the case (Glynn and Tyson 2007, 208). Countries such as Austral ia provide major funding for indigenous media ranging in the $30 million mark (Australian Government 2009), there are also a vast amount of indigenous films that have been made and released to the public for instance the film Smoke Signals (The Internet Movie Database 1999), which grant a rich experience of indigenous cultures and these too would have to be funded by the country in some way. A prime example in Canada would be the dramatic television series North of 60 which still airs today (although in re-runs) on CBC was granted 6 seasons (90 episodes, each 60 minutes long) and 5 made for TV movies and had lasted a total of 6 years (1999 2005) (The Internet Movie Database 1999) which is close to, if not more than, many shows that are brought forth by western cultures such as Corner Gas (6 seasons, 107 episodes) and even the original Star Trek series (3 seasons, 80 episodes) (The Internet Movie Database 1999). Therefore this claim made by Glynn and Tyson, although appropriate for some countries and New Zealand itself at that time, is not the soundest claim to make as it is, as shown, not the case for other countries in the world. This funding issue in indigenous media leads to a very interesting aspect of the article where Glynn and Tyson make note of both glocalization and globalization as also having a positive effect on the culture instead of a purely destabilizing effect.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Glocalization, which is the combination of global ideologies with that of more local ones, (Straubhaar et al 2009, 113) as a positive reinforcement of indigenous culture is an interesting factor in this article. The authors introduce an efficient example of glocalizations benefits with a Maori television drama called Mataku. (Glynn and Tyson 2007, 207) With the creation of this television drama the indigenes are able to present their culture and beliefs not only to their own people, in order for preservation, but with the addition of English subtitles and a supernatural theme (which are present and popular in many western programs such as X-files), (Glynn and Tyson 2007, 206) the indigenes are able to incorporate a more global population and allow their culture to be better understood and be preserved through all populations. The reference to this television show shows without a doubt that by mixing together popular ideolog ies from different cultures into one main idea creates common ground for both cultures to share which not only benefits the indigenous of the land but also all other populations who share in the common interests that these programs present. To refer back to Glynn and Tysons issues surrounding funding for indigenous media, this idea of glocalization also plays against their negative outlook on globalizations effect. By creating this common or middle ground of media it would make sense that by drawing in more of an audience outside of the intended group with popular and mystifying themes such as the supernatural (in Matakus case) these shows would link up with similar westernized media and the demand would hopefully grow. With the growth of demand comes more funding as more people will want to see new episodes. This point is brought forth exceptionally by Glynn and Tyson when referring to the Maori co-creators of the series Mataku, Bradford Haami and Carey Carter (2007, 207). This is done by pointing to Ginsburgs coined term border-crossers, which is the ability to cross between two different cultures (in this case western and Maori cultures) and present their messages to them both effectively. (Glynn and Tyson 2007, 207) By using this ability and accomplishing the task of border crossing more efficiently and on a more frequent basis, the Maori people may have a greater chance of preserving their culture. As for globalization as a more positive effect, Glynn and Tyson touch upon the term cultural hybridity, which means the mixture of two cultures to create a seemingly local culture (2007, 211), and use it efficiently to show that the effects of these mixtures of cultures do in fact lead to more beneficial means for indigenous societies to preserve their culture and language. This can be seen in the article where Glynn and Tyson make note of Lisa Parks examination of cultural hybridity where post-colonial technology is used as a means to transmit pre-colonial cul tural media to the globe (2007, 212). This is a really interesting fact because no matter how much pre-colonial populations feel that their cultures are wasting away, they still take part in post-colonial activities in order to keep their culture afloat. Therefore globalization may in fact present negative effects on cultures but they also help preserve the culture by allowing a larger reach of cultural media to a more global population and the authors of this article, Glynn and Tyson, make this point very clear and use sufficient evidence to prove this claim.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Indelible Marks :: Personal Narrative Writing

Indelible Marks There was a small fish house, thick with the paint of a thousand whitewashes, sinking into the soft earth near the lake. The roof sagged a bit after a lifetime of carrying the crystalline blanket of Minnesota winter. Inside was a wooden counter-top, its surface cold and glossy after witnessing the murder of a million fish. Their life and blood was ingrained in the counter-top, preserving forever the memory of each fish. Perch, Bass, Bluegill, even Northern Pike had come to know death in this small room. Their colors could be seen reflecting in the wood of that counter-top. At night, the small light would cause the wet counter-top to shine like scales flashing against the sun. It was a place of beauty, and a place of horror. I was young, perhaps six or seven when my dad taught me to clean our catch in the small fish house. We never knew what we would catch, but we persistently threw in our lines anyway hoping to hook a keeper. I loved fishing. It was the battle with the fish that intrigued me. Each cast reeled in a new experience. I went in blind with only a hope that what I'd catch would be something I wanted. During the fight with a fish, I never knew if it were a prize Northern or a hefty Bullhead. A big Northern meant dinner, but a fat Bullhead just meant another smelly carcass on the beach for the ants and raccoons to take care of. Dad taught us to fish for Northerns. We were camping that trip, just my brothers, Dad and I. Dad got one of those great big green surplus army tents that you could park a motor home inside. He hung a Coleman lantern in the middle, and at night we would talk and play games. Every night Dad would check me for ticks, little black and red bugs that would embed themselves into your skin and drink your blood. Dad said that if you let a tick get under your skin, it will just sit there and eat away at you. We all loved the lake, especially my second oldest brother Garrett. He could fish with the best of them, and would keep everything he caught. For him, nothing was too big or too small to take to the fish house and add another stain to the counter.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Narrator of Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s Short Story, The Yellow Wallpaper :: Essay on The Yellow Wallpaper

In everyday day life we go through changes and sometimes we even break down to the point we do not know what to do with ourselves, but in Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story† The Yellow Wallpaper† the narrator is an obsessive person. The story focuses on a woman who is going through postpartum depression and has had a nervous breakdown. Her husband John moves her into a home where he wants her to rest in isolation to recover from her disorder. Throughout her time in the room the narrator discovers new things and finally understands life. The narrator is trying to get better from her illness but her husband â€Å"He laughs at me so about this wallpaper† (515). He puts her down and her insecurities do not make it any better. She is treated like a child. John says to his wife â€Å"What is it little girl† (518)? Since he is taking care of her she must obey him â€Å"There comes John, and I must put this away, he hates to have me write a word†. The narrator thinks John is the reason why she cannot get better because he wants her to stay in a room instead of communicating with the world and working outside the house. The room describes the narrator. The room was once a nursery so it reminds her that she has a baby which she is not able to see or hold. The room was also a playroom so it reminds her once again that she cannot play with or watch her baby play. The room has two windows which she looks out of and sees all the beautiful places she cannot go because of her husband. The bars on the windows represent a prison which her husband has put her in to heal from her illness. Throughout her time in the room she notices the wallpaper â€Å"a smouldering unclean yellow, strangely faded by the slow-turning sunlight† (514). After a couple of days in her opinion the wallpaper is starting to change. She sees â€Å"a women stooping down and creeping about behind that pattern† (518). In the daytime she sees the women outside the house â€Å"I see her in that long shaded lane, creeping up and down. I see her in those dark grapes arbors, creeping all around the gardenâ€Å"(521). The places where the women is creeping is where the narrator can’t go so she he creeps in the daytime â€Å"I always lock the door when I creep by daylight† (520).

Friday, October 11, 2019

Commercal Production Of Bovine Somatropin

Somatropin is a hormone naturally released by the Anterior Pituitary gland. Its release is mediated by the releasing hormone produced by the Hypothalamus, Growth Hormone releasing factor. Somatropin is a peptide hormone. It promotes normal body growth and lactation.Bovine Somatropin is the Somatropin produced in cattle. Since the hormone is a peptide, it is digested by peptidases in the gastrointestinal tract hence, it is not orally active. Somatropin is produced commercially using Recombinant DNA technology. The Somatropin so produced is called Recombinant bovine Somatropin (rBST). A bacteria e. g.E coli is used. The gene that codes for Somatropin is identified in the cow DNA and inserted into the DNA of E. coli. The E. coli is fermented and thus, the Somatropin is produced en masse. Through a process of isolation and purification, fairly large, commercial quantities are produced. The product may be marketed as a weekly or fortnightly injection. rBST is of immense value to the cattl e industry as it significantly increases the yield of milk produced by cattle. This is does by increasing the appetite of these cattle. Also the blood flow to the mammary gland is increased as it increases cardiac output.Also it has been reported in literature that the administration of Somatropin leads to a decrease in body fat level. This could mean healthier meats to eat. However, it produces a negative influence on the level of reproduction in animals chronically on bovine Somatropin. Also an increased risk of mastitis is also suggested in animals on which the hormone is administered. REFERENCES. 1. F. Laurent, B. Vignon and D. Coomas (1992). Influence of Bovine Somatotropin on the Composition and Manufacturing Properties of Milk. Accessed from http://www. jds. fass. org/cgi/reprint/75/8/2226. pdf 2. http://encyclopedia. farlex. c

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Cultural History of Rap Essay

Public Enemy opens the track with â€Å"Cant Truss It† in a rap merge with Flavor Flav who shouts â€Å"Confusion† their voices paralleled over the heavy and energetic baselines. Even though the song speaks about slavery as rapped by Chuck D about the legacy of slavery, the opening rhymes could as well be used to describe the cultural history of rap music (Rose 272). While there is widespread perception that rap culture is nothing but a noisy and confusing genre of music that has crept into contemporary America’s culture, there are those who posit that rap is an educational tool, as a component of the hip hop culture it is a way of life, a representation of social activism and a music genre with deep social undertones that are drawn from its identifiable origins. Any discussion on the aesthetic edge of rap cannot be made unless a critical analysis is done of the sequential developments in rap music. Never even in its tutelage did rap gain the adoration of the larger populace. The obstacles it faced as it grew from its roots to achieve its present status are so many that it would be a great disservice to take a criticism leaning on the concept of aesthetic edge to disregard rap and pronounce it dead. Initially rap music was regarded as a passing fad that was nothing but a playful and ephemeral expression of black culture whose origins could be traced to the musical energies of the black urban teens. Wynston Marshalis dismissed hip hop as nothing but adolescent â€Å"ghetto minstresly† (Dyon xv). When it was realized that rap as a form of music was meant to stay longer than it had been expected, it received a novel christening that permanently fixed it as a form of music played by and for black ghetto youths. It is at this point that reactions against rap became transformed from dismissal to denigration and it was commonplace to hear attacks from both the white and black quarters. Trying to chart the origins or rap music as a form of cultural expression is very tricky because we are either forced to accept that the cultural foundation existed but only gained expression through rap or view rap as an independent cultural facet that spontaneously erupted without deep cultural roots from where it had existed way before it gained wide applause or derision. However, for the sake of charting the cultural history of rap and pinning it to what critics say about the music genre, it can be conclusively said that the first instance of rap could be traced to the revolutionary verse that was done by Gil Scott-Heron and the Last Poets. Pigmeat Markham followed next with â€Å"Here Come de Judge,† to Bessie Smith rapping along to the beats in her blues (Keyes 17; Forman & Neal 61). For the purposes of pinpointing the origins of rap, it is also prudent to cite that Rap existed in some ancient African oral traditions and consequently in contemporary African American cultural practices. Specifically, modern cultural history of rap begins in 1979, with Sugarhill Gang rapping in the song â€Å"Rapper’s Delight†. These early cases were mostly underground rap forms. Underground rap was viewed as the signal breaker and what followed next was the birth of hip hop and the beginning of the global popularity of rap music. Usually the first stage in production of rap music was the record production where the artist would place their rhythmic repetitive speech over known black music hits which were mostly R&B rhythms that were well known. This stage would later on transform with the help of advanced technical virtuosity through drum machines, instrumentation and the sampling of existing records so as to make rap a form of music that was creatively symbolic(Forman & Neal 61; Keyes 122). Despite all these changes rap was still limited to the inner city neighborhoods, especially in at its cradle; the New York City. Artists like Cold Rush Brothers, Africa Bambataa, Kurtis Blow, Busty Bee, Kool Moe Dee, Funky 4 plus 1, Grandmaster Mel and DJ Kool Herc, began actively experimenting with this new music genre as well as proclaiming its African roots (Keyes 17). Its development was thus marked by the description and analysis of the social, political and economic factors that stimulated its emergence and consequent developments. Such factors included police brutality, drug addiction, teen pregnancy coupled to a variety of cases of material deprivation. A notable case is Kurtis Blow’s lyrics in â€Å"Those are the Breaks†, and the â€Å"Message† a song merges between The Furious Five and Grandmaster Flash. These songs pictured the hues existent in the social misery as well as the stains that could be observed as profoundly reminiscent of urban catastrophe. A rendition of the â€Å"Message† was as follows; â€Å"You’ll grow up in the ghetto living second rate/ And your eyes will sing a song of deep hate/ The places you play and where you stay, / Looks like one great alleyway/ You’ll admire all the number book takers/ Thus, pimps, and pushers and the big money makers/ Drivin’ big cars, spending like a jungle sometimes/ It makes me wonder how I keep from goin’ under. † (Forman & Neal 62) This song together with Flash’s â€Å"New York, New York† became the pioneers of the social awakening that characterizes rap music in combination with musical creation, social protest and cultural expression (Forman & Neal 62). Kool Herc who was a Jamaican DJ in the Bronx is credited with revolutionizing the rhythms in rap. Herc had a unique style of deejaying where rhymes could be recited over instrumentals. In places where he was deejaying such as house parties, he would rap on the microphone while involving a variety of the in-house references. These duplicates of house parties where Herc was deejaying quickly diffused to Manhattan and Brooklyn and followers of rap music began to grow in number (Keyes 40; Adaso 1). Next stage of growth was the increment in financial fortunes from rappers. However, at the background there were still beliefs that rap was nothing but an epiphenomenol cultural activity that would with time wane off after the youth became bored or acquired a different diversion in life just like what had happened to graffiti art and break dancing. But the growth of groups such as the Run-DMC rap group entrenched rap as an independent sphere of an expression of art that increasingly took control of its destiny. Run-DMC became the progenitor of the modern form of rap that is basically a creative integration of diverse musical elements, social commentary and uncompromising cultural identification. This strong integration pushed rap into the mainstream of American culture as well as securing its future as a music genre that has a clearly identifiable tradition. The commercial and critical success that Run-DMC accomplished almost single handedly, pushed rap music into American homes by being certified gold, being featured on MTV as well as being the first rap album(Raising Hell in 1987) to go triple platinum(Keyes 67). Moreover, with the song â€Å"Proud to be Black† they intoned unabashed racial pride that was missing in those days of chronic racial discrimination. It can also be said that it was at this time in the cultural history that Run-DMC acting like a self proclaimed ambassador of rap music began to concentrate its characteristic subversive cultural didacticism to address issues of racism, classism, urban pain, and social neglect. In rap concerts, rappers engaged in ritualistic refusals to abide by the censoring of speech. The concert also acted as space for cultural resistance, loosening the strictures that Blacks were subjected to through demoralizing condemnation and tyrannizing surveillance. The latter actions by the hegemonies white ruling class only served to muffle cultural creativity and self expression. Based on these developments rap music became a strong social force fighting for their civil rights and liberties. Commercial success was instrumental in pushing rap music to the mainstream American culture on one hand but on the other, another charge was levied on rap music: that rap expressed and promoted violence. A notable personality, Tipper Gore has often retained his repeated stance that rap music only appeals to those kids who are angry, disillusioned and unloved. He posits that rap tells them that it is okay to engage in violence. To this day there is a popular perception that there exists an intimate linkage between rap music and the violence exhibited in the social arena especially by Latino and black inner city youth. However, much people may try to substantiate these claims, they are merely side shows and have nothing to do with the deep understanding of rap as a genre of music as well as a cultural and historical identity of the American people. There are countless numbers of rappers who have spoken against violence. On point is rapper KRS-One on his track titled, â€Å"Stop the Violence† in the top selling album of 1989, â€Å"Self Destruction†. In the track KRS-One raps that violence predates rap and is therefore not a characteristic of rap music. He urges a stop of black on black violence as it only erodes the social and communal fabric that had for decades debased inner cities where blacks resided across America (Forman & Neal 66). Despite the potency of the message that KRS-One put across, categorically negative images in against rap have persisted. In a nutshell, rap music is emblematic of the existence of glacial shifts in aesthetic sensibilities that have for decades progressed as blacks moved from one generation to the next with regard to the severity of economic barriers that have been at play in the movement from the ghetto life to middle or upper middle class blacks. Fortunately, these negative perceptions of rap have led to the development of a fierce competitive steak among rappers and hence their continual transcendence across boundaries to global markets. It is upon this developments that rap modeled the modern definition of hip hop which opines that it is a form of music comprised of emceeing and deejaying coupled with graffiti and break dancing. These are the four components of hip hop that catapulted it to its current big business nature. As this evolution progresses other components like clothing trend, lifestyle, slang and the general mindset are becoming more and more incorporated into the hip hop culture. In differentiating rap and hip hop it can be said that rap is a genre of music in the hip hop culture. Hip hop is a lifestyle complete with its own dress codes and lingo. To borrow the words of KRS-One, hip hop defines how you life while rap is definitive of what you (Adaso 1; Cheryl Keyes interview with KRS-One). Therefore, as a product of decades cross cultural integration with deep roots in the African culture, African oral tradition and consequently African American tradition, it is deeply weaved into the social fabric that pronouncing it dead based on the basis of aesthetic edge is simply parochial. First, it is prudent to understand the cultural developments of rap music because it is only in such an understanding that it becomes considerably plausible to attribute lack of aestheticity in its present forms. In context, rap music brings together so many complex social, economic, cultural and political issues. Its contradictory articulations are neither signs of losing the aesthetic edge nor signs of the absence of intellectual clarity. As stated in the beginning of this discourse, the obstacles that rap has survived to become what it is today are may and variable. Therefore, the contradictory articulations that are existent today are but common features of cultural dialogues that not unidirectional but multi directional in that they include the social, cultural and political contexts that define the everyday struggles over pleasure, resources and meanings in the environment where we live and interact(Rose 274). Rap music is a cultural expression that is a preserve of the black community since it prioritizes black voices living in the inner cities of urban America. It is highly rhythmic with a very strong storytelling component. The music is basically electronically based. These are some of the characteristic features of rap music. It is upon these tenets that rap music should be judged so as to form an opinion on its relevance. Rapping which is currently embedded on the powerful technological, industrial as well as ideological institutions usually involve the telling of long and sometimes abstract stories that are necessary in passing the information to the wider audience. Memorable phrases and rhymes that are themselves black sound bite packaged in an ever changing black slang. In essence, rap music wizards, all sounds, images, icons and ideas for recontextualization, mockery, pun and celebration. All these characteristics lie at the core of rap and are therefore definitive of it. In his book, Hip Hop Matters, Watkins, quotes David Samuels who asserts that â€Å"rap has forfeited whatever claim it may have has to particularly by acquiring a mainstream white audience whose taste increasingly determined the nature of the form. What whites wanted was not music, but black music, which as a result stopped really being either† (85). This statement confirms that rap has lost its aesthetic edge because owing to its origins that clearly defined the cultural difference between white and black music, such a divide was broken by rappers like Eminem who symbolized the first breakage of that division. The fact that Eminem rose to a celebrity status despite his white background also confirms that from the earlier days when rap was a preserve for only the black kids, rap has revolutionized and rewritten the racial and cultural history of America. This assertion can be counterbalanced by the fact that the existence and the inevitability of social change cannot be used as a reason to proclaim that rap has completely lost its aesthetic edge. Moreover, the American landscape has changed both socially, economically, politically and culturally. Days when white hegemonies and racial discrimination have gone by. There cannot be a greater explanation for the political changes than the mere fact that a Black president is occupying the white house. In introducing the book, Know What I Mean, by Dyson rapper JZ reiterates the socio-economic underpinnings that defined his life as he grew on the tough streets of Detroit. These conditions of life opened up his mind to the benefits of learning. He could have become a teacher at Baltimore to show the young kids the benefits of leaning just like Tupac had been shown that there existed a power in knowledge and understanding a people’s history (Dyson ix). He further points out that hip hop are not only Black American but American as well. It is correct in the context of cultural discourses to pinpoint forms of music that are termed as rap and are indeed not. Nas’ assertion that hip hop is dead is welcome as it denotes artistic vigilance. Moreover, Nas forms the caliber of rappers who have maintained the original style and content of rap music. As a rapper he has come into contact with a variety of musicians who are not driven by the basic nature of the rapper to use music as a form of activism against social ills. In his book, Dyson describes Nas as one of his generation who is not illiterate, destructive or materialistic, a man who read for passion, pleasure and intellectual stimulation (iv). At the core, rap music can never be called rap without an examination and acceptance of its true nature in the social fabric of America’s landscape. According to Nas, hip hop is dead is a title he used for his album because he felt that unlike in the historical past, people no longer have political voices. Speaking in an interview with MTV, he said, â€Å"When I say ‘hip-hop is dead’, basically America is dead. There is no political voice. Music is dead †¦ Our way of thinking is dead, our commerce is dead. Everything in this society has been done. It’s like a slingshot, where you throw the m- back and it starts losing speed and is about to fall down. That’s where we are as a country †¦ what I mean by ‘hip-hop is dead’ is we’re at a vulnerable state. If we don’t change, we gonna disappear like Rome. I think hip-hop could help rebuild America, once hip-hoppers own hip-hop †¦ We are our own politicians, our own government, we have something to say† (MTV. com) In another interview Nas said that he used the title as a way of engendering reaction from other artists which like he expected happened. Nas blamed the hip hop world especially those in the South for reducing the quality of rap with sub genres like snap music and crunk. Such productions were ideally an affront to Nas’ street credibility. It is aspect of street credibility that Keyes refers to as street consciousness. A critical analysis of the lyrical content as well as the social message in many of today’s rap hits confirms Nas’ assertion that hip hop is dead. The noble quest for social voice that had existed in the past has been replaced with a music genre that is solely driven towards material possession and the pleasures that accompany such acquisitions of wealth. In another interview he could not be more exact, he said that rappers were simply monkeying around and just scrambling for attention. As a counter attack to the notion that hip hop has lost its aesthetic edge, Young Jeezy, Ludacris, Lil Wayne and Kanye West scoffed at the assertions made by Nas. Specifically, Ludacris intoned that hip hop ain’t dead that it was indeed living in the South. Saying that it was the South keeping it alive, he added that hip hop is what you make it to be. Moreover, they believed that due to the booming South, saying that hip hop is dead does not make sense as the south would have been dead too(http://tbohiphop. net). According to Keyes, Rap music if a forum used by rappers to address economic and political disfranchisement of youths especially black youths, it fosters ethnic pride, displays cultural values and aesthetics. At the core rap is artists, the themes they portray and the variation of styles in the portrayal of these themes as a sure reflection of urban life and street consciousness values and aesthetics. Therefore as countries, cultures and cultural components change and socially restructure, there is going to be a continual transformation across cultures and not even rap music can escape such an onslaught. However, a dominant cultural force like rap genre can never be erased. There are core components that will forever define and differentiate rap music from other musical genres. Works Cited Dyson, E. Michael. Know What I Mean? Reflections on Hip Hop. Westview Press, 2007 Forman, M. & Neal, A. Mark. That’s the joint! the hip-hop studies reader. Routledge Press. 2004 Keyes, L. Cheryl. Rap Music and Street Consciousness. University of Illinois Press. 2004 Rose, Tricia. Voices from the Margins: Rap Music and Contemporary Cultural Production. In Popular Culture in American History. By Jim Cullen. Blackwell Publishing, 2001 Watkins, C. Samuel. Hip Hop Matters: Politics, Pop Culture, and the Struggle for the Soul of a Movement. Beacon Press, 2005 Websites Adaso, H. A Brief History of Hip-Hop and Rap. http://rap. about. com/od/rootsofraphiphop/p/RootsOfRap. htm Is Hip-Hop Dead? Luda, Big Boi Disagree With Nas. http://tbohiphop. net/is-hip-hop-dead-luda-big-boi-disagree-with-nas/18/ MTV. NAS Interview, â€Å"Hip-Hop Is Dead†. MTV. com

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

How Technology Helps in Communication Essay

If we talk about what are the tools that we can use in developing communication, than I say that â€Å"technology is one of the tools that we can use for communication†. Worlds are globalizing, we cannot depend on only one medium. We are lucky to have science gift that is technology. Communicating involves giving, receiving and making sense of information. Children do this by using non-verbal means of communication, talking, listening, thinking, and understanding. In time, the skills of reading and writing enrich this experience. Communicating is a two-way activity; as well as learning to share their experiences with others children also learn to interpret what others are sharing with them. They communicate in many different ways including facial expressions, gestures, body movements, sounds, language and for some children, through assistive technology. Children’s language is more than words, phrases and sentences. It includes art, Braille, dance, drama, music, poetry, pictures, sculpture, signing, and stories. While most children eventually master spoken and written language as their key means of communicating, they continue to speak through their gestures, body movements and expressions to a greater or lesser extent. Some children with special educational needs may need additional and consistent support throughout their lifetime to practise, learn and perfect the art of non-verbal communication. Language technologies are information technologies that are specialized for dealing with the most complex information medium in our world: human language. Therefore these technologies are also often subsumed under the term Human Language Technology. Human language occurs in spoken and written form. Whereas speech is the oldest and most natural mode of language communication, complex information and most of human knowledge is maintained and transmitted in written texts. Speech and text technologies process or produce language in these two modes of realization. But language also has aspects that are shared between speech and text such as dictionaries, most of grammar and the meaning of sentences. Thus large parts of language technology cannot be subsumed under speech and text technologies. Among those are technologies that link language to knowledge. We do not know how language, knowledge and thought are represented in the human brain. Nevertheless, language technology had to create formal representation systems that link language to concepts and tasks in the real world. This provides the interface to the fast growing area of knowledge technologies. In our communication we mix language with other modes of communication and other information media. We combine speech with gesture and facial expressions. Digital texts are combined with pictures and sounds. Movies may contain language and spoken and written form. Thus speech and text technologies overlap and interact with many other technologies that facilitate processing of multimodal communication and multimedia documents. Although existing LT systems are far from achieving human ability, they have numerous possible applications. The goal is to create software products that have some knowledge of human language. Such products are going to change our lives. They are urgently needed for improving human-machine interaction since the main obstacle in the interaction between human and computer is merely a communication problem. Today’s computers do not understand our language but computer languages are difficult to learn and do not correspond to the structure of human thought. Even if the language the machine understands and its domain of discourse are very restricted, the use of human language can increase the acceptance of software and the productivity of its users. Language technologies helps in developing listening and speaking skills Being a good communicator is crucial to children’s development. The adult encourages children to communicate by listening to them, interpreting what they are saying, responding to them, and by modeling good communication. The adult also provides an environment which motivates children to interact with each other and the adult, and with the objects and places in it. By capturing children’s interest and curiosity and challenging them to explore and to share their adventures and discoveries with others, this environment can fuel their thinking, imagination and creativity, thereby enriching communication. These early experiences support children in becoming confident and competent communicators Natural language interfaces enable the user to communicate with the computer in French, English, German, or another human language. Some applications of such interfaces are database queries, information retrieval from texts, so-called expert systems, and robot control. Current advances in the recognition of spoken language improve the usability of many types of natural language systems. Communication with computers using spoken language will have a lasting impact upon the work environment; completely new areas of application for information technology will open up. However, spoken language needs to be combined with other modes of communication such as pointing with mouse or finger. If such multimodal communication is finally embedded in an effective general model of cooperation, we have succeeded in turning the machine into a partner. The ultimate goal of research is the omnipresent access to all kinds of technology and to the global information structure by natural interaction. In an ambitious but not too far-fetched scenario, language technology provides the interface to an ambient intelligence providing assistance at work and in many situations of daily life. Language technologies can also help people communicate with each other. Much older than communication problems between human beings and machines are those between people with different mother tongues. One of the original aims of language technology has always been fully automatic translation between human languages. From bitter experience scientists have realized that they are still far away from achieving the ambitious goal of translating unrestricted texts. Nevertheless, they have been able to create software systems that simplify the work of human translators and clearly improve their productivity. Less than perfect automatic translations can also be of great help to information seekers who have to search through large amounts of texts in foreign languages. The most serious bottleneck for e-commerce is the volume of communication between business and customers or among businesses. Language technology can help to sort, filter and route incoming email. It can also assist the customer relationship agent to look up information and to compose a response. In cases where questions have been answered before, language Technology can find appropriate earlier replies and automatically respond.

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Human resource management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 4

Human resource management - Essay Example d organizing an effective workforce that is able to make valuable contribution of promoting a sense of togetherness and collective responsibility that reflects in the increased output and improved performance outcome of the organizational goals and objectives. Understanding of organizational behaviour is essential ingredient of organizational communication which motivates people to better performance, leading to higher productivity. Effective communication facilitates better understanding of cross cultural values and cuts across the multi cultural layer of the organization and is the key to enhance the overall performance of the organization. Schwenk says that ‘employee’s absolute commitment to a shared vision of change is seen by many leaders/ change agents as so important for their organization’s continued survival’ (Schwenk, 1997, p4). It therefore implies that high morale of the workforce results in improved performance outcome of the organization. Maslow argues that ‘People’s behaviours are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs’ comprising of self actualization, status, acknowledgement, reward and retention (Schwalbe, 2007). Hence, managerial leadership that encourages and promotes proactive participation and collective decision making significantly inspires the workforce to improved performance outcome. Indeed, Quick et al. have also stressed ‘it is possible that psychological well-being and employee performance are related’ (Quick et al, 1997). In CCB International, the theoretical aspect of human resource management is well understood by the senior management and CEO but not taken up with sensitive approach. The concept of workforce as human capital is accepted by the Managing director but the Head of HR department feels that morale building and team spirit can be achieved through joint activities and are not vital part of organizational culture. He also argues that HR strategy is limited to meeting the HR requirements and may